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The French Revolution had repercussions that continued for over a century. Napoleon's rapid rise to power in post-revolutionary France changed the shape of Europe. After his failed attempt to unify the continent, Europe tried to return to the political/social divisions of the pre-Napoleonic Europe. Napoleon's legacy (Napoleonic Code and Nationalism) changed Europe forever. Meanwhile, Great Britain actually expanded political rights (most notably by ending slavery in the British Empire).


Legacy of Napoleon

  • Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination
    • Napoleonic Code
    • Awakened feelings of national pride and growth of nationalism


Legacy of the Congress of Vienna

  • β€œBalance of power” doctrine
  • Restoration of monarchies
  • New political map of Europe
  • New political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)


National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism.

  • The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe (especially in Italy and the German states.)
  • Unsuccessful Revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.
  • In contrast to continental Europe, Great Britain expanded political rights through legislative means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire.

Unification of Italy

  • Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
  • The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.


Unification of Germany

  • Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.
  • Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
  • The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.

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CLIP ONE: MINI-BIOGRAPHY OF NAPOLEON:
Napoleon Bonaparte was born in 1769 in France. He revolutionized military organization and training, sponsored Napoleonic Code, reorganized education and established the long-lived Concordat with the papacy. He died in 1821 in St. Helena.

CLIP TWO: (LONGER) BIO OF NAPOLEON BONAPARTE

CLIP THREE: NAPOLEON FINDS THE ROSETTA STONE

CLIP FOUR: NAPOLEON INVADES RUSSIA

CLIP FIVE: WATERLOO...


CLIP SIX: OTTO VON BISMARK

CLIP SEVEN: IRON AND BLOOD: The amazingly overacted dramatization of Otto von Bismark's role in the Unification of Germany. 

CLIP EIGHT: ITALIAN UNIFICATION

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