24 Days. 576 Hours. 34,560 Minutes
Industrialized European powers sought new markets and raw materials for their economies. Well, here are some consequences of that:
5.2 Imperialism & Nation-State Formation
The intro sentence above is the main idea; but there are some offshoots the AP would like you to focus in on:
METHODS: Both Warfare and Diplomacy were used. I’m thinking the “diplomacy” piece is dealing with the Berlin Conference, where the major European powers met to divide Africa amongst themselves.
SETTLER COLONIES: These have happened before (New World) but they take on a greater significance in this era. It’s just a colony where there are far fewer colonists (white people or Japanese people) than the natives. Best example is probably India, but also Algeria (French) and New Zealand (British).
ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM: The US was the king of this in Latin America (along with the British). This is where a state dominates another state via their economy. You don’t conquer them. You don’t indoctrinate them. You just make them dependent on your economy for survival. Another great example is the British making the Chinese dependent on Opium.
MEIJI JAPAN: They deserve their own subsection here. Japan (after some internal debate/warfare and some passive aggressive coaxing from the US) began to rapidly modernize in the late 19th Century. This will play a huge role in the 20th Century, but even at the end of THIS era; Japan has won a war against China and received some concession territory in China. Japan is the exception! Not the Mongols… Think of Japan as another Imperial power.
LAND EMPIRES TOO! Don’t forget that Russia and the US expanded primarily over land. Look at a map. Russia is blanking HUGE! The US and Russia both grew to their current sizes during this period.
EXISTING EMPIRES ON THE EDGE OF THESE NEW EMPIRES: Here is a brief rundown.
OTTOMAN FAIL: The Ottomans have been around since 1452 (and before). But, as other states expanded their borders, the Ottomans contracted theirs. They lose Egypt to the British, Balkans to independence, and North Africa to French and Italians. The Ottomans do not make it very far into the 20th Century, but there were signs of decay even this early…
NATIONALISM: Nationalism plays a huge role everywhere in this period. Nationalism is either the pride one has in their existing nation OR the aspirations of having your own nation; for us here, it is the latter. It begins with Napoleon’s romp around Europe, but wherever the Europeans went in this era, they took this with them. It then was used against the Europeans as a force for Independence.
SOCIAL DARWINISM: This was a favorite excuse of the Imperialists. Remember how the Dodo bird died because it was inferior. It was not the fittest. Well, societies are the same way (according to this theory). Your way of life will die out because it will be replaced by a superior one. So, when the Europeans are mocking your culture, or destroying your history… It’s not their fault… It’s science! (this is a totally racist/horrible excuse. Your culture is not better than any other culture… Proof).