Well... well... well.  Look at you. You made it!  The FINAL ERA! The era you were born in! 1900-Present.  The 20th Century is full of so much historical stuff that you need to know that I won't bog you down with some long intro.  It basically breaks into three categories: 1. Science and the Environment; 2. Global Conflict; 3. Globalization... This is the Contemporary Era.

Key Concept 6.1 Science and the Environment
Rapid advances in science altered the understanding of the universe and the natural world and led to the development of new technologies. These changes enabled unprecedented population growth, which altered how humans interacted with the environment and threatened delicate ecological balances at local, regional, and global levels.

1. Researchers made rapid advances in science that spread throughout the world, assisted by the development of new technology.

New modes of communication and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of geographic distance.

New modes of communication and transportation virtually eliminated the problem of geographic distance.

New scientific paradigms (Theory of Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Psychology) transformed human understanding of the world.

New scientific paradigms (Theory of RelativityQuantum Mechanics, Psychologytransformed human understanding of the world.

New scientific paradigms ( Big Bang Theory) transformed human understanding of the world.

New scientific paradigms ( Big Bang Theorytransformed human understanding of the world.

New scientific paradigms (Theory of Relativity) transformed human understanding of the world.

New scientific paradigms (Theory of Relativitytransformed human understanding of the world.

The Green Revolution (VIDEO)produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture. (2011 DBQ TOPIC)

The Green Revolution (VIDEO)produced food for the earth’s growing population as it spread chemically and genetically enhanced forms of agriculture. (2011 DBQ TOPIC)

Medical innovations (Polio Vaccine, Anitbiotics, The artificial heart) increased the ability of humans to survive.

Medical innovations (Polio VaccineAnitbioticsThe artificial heart) increased the ability of humans to survive.

Energy technologies including the use of oil and nuclear power raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.

Energy technologies including the use of oil and nuclear power raised productivity and increased the production of material goods.

2. As the global population expanded at an unprecedented rate, humans fundamentally changed their relationship with the environment.

Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history.

Humans exploited and competed over the earth’s finite resources more intensely than ever before in human history.

Global warming (climate change) was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere.

Global warming (climate change) was a major consequence of the release of greenhouse gases and other pollutants into the atmosphere.

Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continuing consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.

Pollution threatened the world’s supply of water and clean air. Deforestation and desertification were continuing consequences of the human impact on the environment. Rates of extinction of other species accelerated sharply.

3. Disease, scientific innovations, and conflict led to demographic shifts.

Diseases associated with poverty (MalariaCholeraTuberculosis) persisted, while other diseases emerged as new epidemics (1918 FluHIV/AIDSEbola) and threats to human survival. In addition, changing lifestyles (DiabetesHeart DiseaseAlzheimer's Disease) and increased longevity led to higher incidence of certain diseases.

More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.

More effective forms of birth control gave women greater control over fertility and transformed sexual practices.

Improved military technology (Tanks, Airplanes, Atomic Bombs) and new tactics (Trench Warfare, Firebombing) led to increased levels of wartime casualties (Nanjing(some of these images may be offensive to younger students), Dresden, Hiroshima).

Improved military technology (TanksAirplanesAtomic Bombs) and new tactics (Trench Warfare, Firebombing) led to increased levels of wartime casualties (Nanjing(some of these images may be offensive to younger students), DresdenHiroshima).

Key Concept 6.2 Global Conflicts and Their Consequences
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a European-dominated global political order existed, which also included the United States, Russia, and Japan. Over the course of the century, peoples and states around the world challenged this order in ways that sought to redistribute power within the existing order and to restructure empires, while those peoples and states in power attempted to maintain the status quo. Other peoples and states sought to overturn the political order itself. These challenges to, and the attempts to maintain, the political order manifested themselves in an unprecedented level of conflict with high human casualties. In the context of these conflicts, many regimes in both older and newer states struggled with maintaining political stability and were challenged by internal and external factors, including ethnic and religious conflicts, secessionist movements, territorial partitions, economic dependency, and the legacies of colonialism.

Before we get going with the major geo-political movements of the CONTEMPORARY PERIOD, I figured we needed to talk about the Soviet Union.  The AP doesn't bring up nations like they did in previous periods (Ex. Persian Empires,  Dutch Maritime Empires).  But,the Contemporary Period is dominated with the "Evil Empire".  So, here is a page devoted to the Soviet Union;

1. Europe dominated the global political order at the beginning of the twentieth century, but both land-based and transoceanic empires gave way to new forms of transregional political organization by the century’s end.

The older land-based Ottoman, Russian, and Qing (SEE THE CRASH COURSE BELOW ON CHINA) empires collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors (Economic hardship, political and social discontent, technological stagnation, military defeat).

The older land-based OttomanRussian, and Qing (SEE THE CRASH COURSE BELOW ON CHINA) empires collapsed due to a combination of internal and external factors (Economic hardship, political and social discontent, technological stagnation, military defeat).

Some colonies negotiated their independence (India from British Empire, Gold Coast/Ghana from British Empire).

Some colonies negotiated their independence (India from British EmpireGold Coast/Ghana from British Empire).

Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle (Algeria and Vietnam from France, Angola from the Portuguese Empire).

Some colonies achieved independence through armed struggle (Algeria and Vietnam from FranceAngola from the Portuguese Empire).

2. Emerging ideologies of anti-imperialism contributed to the dissolution of empires and the restructuring of states.

Nationalist leaders (Mohandas Gandhi, Ho Chi Minh, Kwame Nkrumah)in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule.

Nationalist leaders (Mohandas GandhiHo Chi MinhKwame Nkrumah)in Asia and Africa challenged imperial rule.

(The banner above takes you to a discussion of the Virginia SOL information/videos/notes on this topic)

(The banner above takes you to a discussion of the Virginia SOL information/videos/notes on this topic)

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Regional, religious, and ethnic movements (Muhammad Ali Jinnah, The Quebecois separatist movement, Biafra secessionist Movement)challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries.

Regional, religious, and ethnic movements (Muhammad Ali JinnahThe Quebecois separatist movementBiafra secessionist Movement)challenged both colonial rule and inherited imperial boundaries.

Transnational movements (Communism, Pan-africanism, Pan-arabism)sought to unite people across national boundaries.

Transnational movements (CommunismPan-africanismPan-arabism)sought to unite people across national boundaries.

Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, sometimes advocating communism and socialism.

Movements to redistribute land and resources developed within states in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, sometimes advocating communism and socialism.

3. Political changes were accompanied by major demographic and social consequences.

The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements (India/Pakistan Partition, Zionist Jewish settlement of Palestine, Division of middle east into Mandates).

The redrawing of old colonial boundaries led to population resettlements (India/Pakistan PartitionZionist Jewish settlement of PalestineDivision of middle east into Mandates).

The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (South Asians to Britain, Algerians to France, Filipinos to the United States)maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires.

The migration of former colonial subjects to imperial metropoles (South Asians to Britain, Algerians to France, Filipinos to the United States)maintained cultural and economic ties between the colony and the metropole even after the dissolution of empires.

4. Military conflicts occurred on an unprecedented global scale.

(The banner below takes you to a discussion of the Virginia SOL information/videos/notes on this topic)

(The banner below takes you to a discussion of the Virginia SOL information/videos/notes on this topic)

  • The sources of global conflict in the first half of the century varied. Required examples of the sources of global conflict:
    • Imperialist expansion by European powers and Japan
    • Competition for resources
    • Ethnic conflict
    • Great power rivalries between Great Britain and Germany
    • Nationalist ideologies
    • The economic crisis engendered by the Great Depression.
(The banner below takes you to a discussion of the Virginia SOL information/videos/notes on this topic)

(The banner below takes you to a discussion of the Virginia SOL information/videos/notes on this topic)

  • The global balance of economic and political power shifted after end of World War II and rapidly evolved into the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers, which led to ideological struggles between capitalism and communism throughout the globe.
The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

The Cold War produced new military alliances, including NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and promoted proxy wars in Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.

The dissolution of the Soviet Union effectively ended the Cold War.

5. Although conflict dominated much of the twentieth century, many individuals and groups — including states — opposed this trend. Some individuals and groups, however, intensified the conflicts.

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Picasso's Guernica (Click HERE to take a 3D tour)

Thich Quang Duc's Self Immolation

Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.

Gandhi and Martin Luther King Jr.

Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives (Communist leaders Ho Chi Minh and Mao Zedong, Non-aligned movement, which presented an alternative political bloc to the Cold War, Anti-apartheid movement in South Africa, Participants in the Global uprisings of 1968, Tiananmen Square protesters that promoted democracy in China) to the existing economic, political, and social orders.

Groups and individuals opposed and promoted alternatives (Communist leaders Ho Chi Minh and Mao ZedongNon-aligned movement, which presented an alternative political bloc to the Cold War, Anti-apartheid movement in South Africa, Participants in the Global uprisings of 1968, Tiananmen Square protesters that promoted democracy in China) to the existing economic, political, and social orders.

Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict (Promotion of military dictatorship in Spain,Uganda, and Spain, United States promotion of a New World Order after Cold War, Build-up of Military Industrial Complex and arms trading).

Militaries and militarized states often responded to the proliferation of conflicts in ways that further intensified conflict (Promotion of military dictatorship in Spain,Uganda, and Spain, United States promotion of a New World Order after Cold War, Build-up of Military Industrial Complex and arms trading).

More movements used violence (IRA, ETA, Al Qaeda)against civilians to achieve political aims.

More movements used violence (IRAETAAl Qaeda)against civilians to achieve political aims.

Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture (Dada, James Bond, Socialist Realism, Video Games)

Global conflicts had a profound influence on popular culture (DadaJames BondSocialist RealismVideo Games)

KEY CONCEPT 6.3: NEW CONCEPTUALIZATIONS of GLOBAL ECONOMY, SOCIETY & CULTURE
The twentieth century witnessed a great deal of warfare and the collapse of the global economy in the 1930s. In response to these challenges, the role of state in the domestic economy fluctuated, and new institutions of global governance emerged and continued to develop throughout the century. Scientific breakthroughs, new technologies, increasing levels of integration, changing relationships between humans and the environment, and the frequency of political conflict all contributed to global developments in which people crafted new understandings of society, culture, and historical interpretations. These new understandings often manifested themselves in, and were reinforced by, new forms of cultural production. Institutions of global governance both shaped and adapted to these social conditions.
 

1. States responded in a variety of ways to the economic challenges of the twentieth century. (2013 COMPARE/CONTRAST ESSAY)

In the Communist states of the Soviet Union and China, governments controlled their national economies (Five Year Plans, Great Leap Forward). (

In the Communist states of the Soviet Union and China, governments controlled their national economies (Five Year PlansGreat Leap Forward). (

At the beginning of the century in the United States and parts of Europe, governments played a minimal role in their national economies. With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in economic life. (New Deal, The Fascist Corporatist Economy)

At the beginning of the century in the United States and parts of Europe, governments played a minimal role in their national economies. With the onset of the Great Depression, governments began to take a more active role in economic life. (New Deal, The Fascist Corporatist Economy)

At the end of the twentieth century, many governments encouraged free market economic policies and promoted economic liberalization (United States under Reagan,Great Britain under Thatcher, China under Deng Xiaoping, Chile under Pinochet).

At the end of the twentieth century, many governments encouraged free market economic policies and promoted economic liberalization (United States under Reagan,Great Britain under ThatcherChina under Deng Xiaoping, Chile under Pinochet).

2. States, communities, and individuals became increasingly interdependent, a process facilitated by the growth of institutions of global governance.

New international organizations (League of Nations, United Nations, International Criminal Court)formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.

New international organizations (League of NationsUnited NationsInternational Criminal Court)formed to maintain world peace and to facilitate international cooperation.

New economic institutions (International Monetary Fund IMF, World Bank, World Trade Organization WTO)sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world.

New economic institutions (International Monetary Fund IMFWorld BankWorld Trade Organization WTO)sought to spread the principles and practices associated with free market economics throughout the world.

Humanitarian organizations (UNICEF, Amnesty International, Red Cross, Doctor's without Borders, World Health Organization)developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.

Humanitarian organizations (UNICEFAmnesty InternationalRed CrossDoctor's without BordersWorld Health Organization)developed to respond to humanitarian crises throughout the world.

Regional trade agreements (European Union, NAFTA, ASEAN, Mercosur) created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.

Regional trade agreements (European UnionNAFTAASEANMercosur) created regional trading blocs designed to promote the movement of capital and goods across national borders.

Multinational corporations (Royal Dutch Shell, Coca-cola, Sony)began to challenge state authority and autonomy.

Multinational corporations (Royal Dutch ShellCoca-colaSony)began to challenge state authority and autonomy.

Movements (Greenpeace, Green Belt in Kenya, Earth Day) throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.

Movements (GreenpeaceGreen Belt in KenyaEarth Day) throughout the world protested the inequality of environmental and economic consequences of global integration.

3. People conceptualized society and culture in new ways; some challenged old assumptions about race, class, gender, and religion, often using new technologies to spread reconfigured traditions.

The notion of human rights (UN Declaration of Human Rights, Women's rights, The end of the White Australia Policy)gained traction throughout the world.

The notion of human rights (UN Declaration of Human RightsWomen's rightsThe end of the White Australia Policy)gained traction throughout the world.

IV.Popular and consumer culture became global. (2012 DBQ FREE RESPONSE QUESTION)

Sports (World Cup Soccer, The Olympics, Cricket)were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations.

Sports (World Cup SoccerThe OlympicsCricket)were more widely practiced and reflected national and social aspirations.

Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film (Reggae, Bollywood).

Changes in communication and transportation technology enabled the widespread diffusion of music and film (ReggaeBollywood).

The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

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