The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. Enabled by the Scientific Revolution, which had begun as early as 1500, the Enlightenment represented about as big of a departure as possible from the Middle Ages—the period in European history lasting from roughly the fifth century to the fifteenth. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, however, opened a path for independent thought, and the fields of mathematics, astronomy, physics, politics, economics, philosophy, and medicine were drastically updated and expanded. The amount of new knowledge that emerged was staggering. Just as important was the enthusiasm with which people approached the Enlightenment: intellectual salons popped up in France, philosophical discussions were held, and the increasingly literate population read books and passed them around feverishly. The Enlightenment and all of the new knowledge thus permeated nearly every facet of civilized life.

The Enlightenment was a sprawling intellectual, philosophical, cultural, and social movement that spread through England, France, Germany, and other parts of Europe during the 1700s. Enabled by the Scientific Revolution, which had begun as early as 1500, the Enlightenment represented about as big of a departure as possible from the Middle Ages—the period in European history lasting from roughly the fifth century to the fifteenth. The Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, however, opened a path for independent thought, and the fields of mathematics, astronomy, physics, politics, economics, philosophy, and medicine were drastically updated and expanded. The amount of new knowledge that emerged was staggering. Just as important was the enthusiasm with which people approached the Enlightenment: intellectual salons popped up in France, philosophical discussions were held, and the increasingly literate population read books and passed them around feverishly. The Enlightenment and all of the new knowledge thus permeated nearly every facet of civilized life.


Explaining the political, religious, and social ideas of the Enlightenment and the ways in which they influenced the founders of the United States.
The Enlightenment

  • Applied reason to the human world, as well as to the rest of the natural world
  • Stimulated religious tolerance
  • Fueled democratic revolutions around the world

Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas

  • Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of nature” and consent to government for self-protection.
  • John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
  • Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws: The best form of government includes a separation of powers.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract: Government is a contract between rulers and the people.
  • Voltaire: Religious toleration should triumph over religious fanaticism; separation of church and state.


Influence of the Enlightenment

  • Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
  • Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
  • The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas

Describe the expansion of the arts, philosophy, literature, and new technology.

Representative composers, artists, philosophers, and writers

  • Johann Sebastian Bach: Baroque composer
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Classical composer
  • Voltaire: Philosopher
  • Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist
  • Eugène Delacroix: Painter (transition to the Romantic School of the nineteenth century)


New schools of art and forms of literature

  • Painting depicted classical subjects, public events, natural scenes, and living people (portraits).
  • New forms of literature evolved, such as the novel (e.g., Cervantes’ Don Quixote).


Technologies

  • All-weather roads improved year- round transport and trade.
  • New designs in farm tools increased productivity (agricultural revolution).
  • Improvements in ship design lowered the cost of transport.



CLIP ONE: THE ENLIGHTENMENT

CLIP TWO: JOHN LOCKE BIO

CLIP THREE: MONTESQUIEU's SEPERATION OF POWERS

CLIP FOUR; THE SOCIAL CONTRACT: HOBBES vs. ROUSSEAU (from 8-bit philosophy)

CLIP FIVE: DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (from AMERICA THE STORY OF US)

CLIP SIX: BAROQUE MUSIC OF BACH 

CLIP SEVEN: CLASSICAL MOZART

CLIP EIGHT: MOZART V. SOLIARI

CLIP NINE: DON QUIXOTE (KID'S VERSION)

CLIP TEN; ART HISTORIANS ANALYZE DELECROIX'S MOST FAMOUS WORK


The representatives of The 95 are pictured below. Click the banner above for the complete list.

The representatives of The 95 are pictured below. Click the banner above for the complete list.