League of Nations
- International cooperative organization
- Established to prevent future wars
- United States not a member
- Failure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions
The mandate system
- The system was created to administer the colonies of defeated powers on a temporary basis.
- Franceand Great Britain became mandatory powers in the Middle East.
- During World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to divide large portions of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves.
- After the war, the “mandate system” gave Great Britain and France control over the lands that became Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British control) and Syria and Lebanon (French control).
- The division of the Ottoman Empire through the mandate system planted the seeds for future conflicts in the Middle East.
Causes of worldwide depression
- German reparations
- Expansion of production capacities and dominance of the United States in the global economy
- High protective tariffs
- Excessive expansion of credit
- Stock Market Crash (1929)
Impact of world depression
- High unemployment in industrial countries
- Bank failures and collapse of credit
- Collapse of prices in world trade
- Nazi Party’s growing importance in Germany; Nazi Party’s blame of European Jews for economic collapse
U.S.S.R. during the Interwar Period—Joseph Stalin
- Entrenchment of communism
- Stalin’s policies (five-year plans, collectivization of farms, state industrialization, secret police)
- Great Purge
Germany during the Interwar Period—Adolf Hitler
- Inflation and depression
- Democratic government weakened
- Extreme nationalism
- National Socialism (Nazism)
- German occupation of nearby countries
Italy during the Interwar Period— Benito Mussolini
- Rise of fascism
- Ambition to restore the glory of Rome
- Invasion of Ethiopia
Japan during the Interwar Period— Hirohito and Hideki Tojo
- Industrialization of Japan, leading to drive for raw materials
- Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China