The previous era was dominated by European discovery. This era is dominated by how these Europeans handled their new-found success both ECONOMICALLY (Industrial Revolution) & POLITICALLY (Revolutions)**. Much like the Mongols and Muslims of the Post Classical, this era is essentially the Industrial Revolution & the Enlightenment-driven Revolutions (French, US, Latin America, etc.). One could argue that the Industrial Revolution is the most important thing that ever happened. Besides the Columbian Exchange, its the only other thing I can guarantee that will be on the AP test. This is also the only era with 4 subsections: Industrial Revolution, Imperialism, Revolution, and Migration. This is the Modern Era...
(**WARNING: DO NOT GET TOO EURO HERE. LOOKING THROUGH THE CURRICULUM BELOW, IT SEEMS THAT THE FOCUS OF THIS ERA IS EUROPE/WEST. EUROPE's DOMINATION WAS ONLY ASSURED BY THE END OF THE PERIOD, 1900. IN 1750, CHINA IS THE WORLD's BIGGEST MANUFACTURER. CHINA WILL REMAIN THE LARGEST MANUFACTURER UNTIL THE 1830s AND WASN't SURPASSED BY THE US UNTIL THE 1880s. SO, DON'T SKIP PAST CHINA, JAPAN, the OTTOMANS, LATIN AMERICA, and AFRICA!!!!)
KEY CONCEPT 5.1: INDUSTRIALIZATION & GLOBAL CAPITALISM
Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.
1. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced
2. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.
3. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions.
4. There were major developments in transportation and communication Required examples of developments in transportation and communication
5. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.
- In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production.
6. The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy.
KEY CONCEPT 5.2: IMPERIALISM & NATION-STATE FORMATION
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.
1. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires. (2013 DBQ ESSAY)
2. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.
3. New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism.
KEY CONCEPT 5.3: NATIONALISM, REVOLUTION, and REFORM
The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and anti-Imperial tendencies of this period.
1. The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments
2. Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations.
3. Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.
- American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarchy. Required examples of rebellions
4. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.
KEY CONCEPT 5.4: GLOBAL MIGRATION
Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. In both cases, migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people. (2011 CCOT TOPIC)
1. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and un-industrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.
2. Migrants (manual laborers, specialized professionals) relocated for a variety of reasons.
- While many migrants permanently relocated, a significant number of temporary and seasonal migrants (Japanese Agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, Italians in Argentina) returned to their home societies
3. The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the nineteenth century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations.
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CHANGED THE WAY THAT EVERYTHING IS MADE AND WOULD LEAD EUROPE TO DOMINATE THE WORLD.
USING THEIR NEW INDUSTRIAL POWERS, EUROPE WENT OUT AND CONQUERED EVERYWHERE THEY HAD NOT GOTTEN TO IN THE LAST ERA (CENTRAL AFRICA, ASIA, AUSTRALIA).
EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS SPREAD AND LED TO REVOLUTIONS IN THE NEW WORLD (AND IN EUROPE).
TRADITIONAL WORLD POWERS FROM THE LAST ERA WEAKENED (SPAIN, OTTOMANS, MUGHALS, QING CHINA) WHILE NEW WORLD POWERS ROSE ( USA, GERMANY, JAPAN).
HUGE EMPIRES + BOOMING INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES= GLOBAL MIGRATIONS (People moving for work)