The map of Europe took on a different look after 1848. The period of revolutions was over and, from now on, most of the liberals and the nationalists in Europe began to cooperate with their governments rather than trying to overthrow them. In turn, many governments found that by agreeing to certain liberal reforms, and adapting the demands of the nationalists to their needs, they could actually make their states stronger, not weaker, as they previously feared. Two nationalities had yet to gain independence and existed only as loose confederations. Those two nations fought for and gained their independence in the 1870s... Those two new nations are known today as Germany andItaly.

Unification of Italy

  • Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
  • Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
  • The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.

Unification of Germany

  • Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.
  • Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
  • The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.