26 Days. 624 Hours. 37,440 Minutes.

Today, let’s focus on the economics behind the Industrial Revolution.  AKA Capitalism, Classical Liberalism, Marxism, Utopian Socialism, and Anarchism

5.1 Industrialization and Global Capitalism:


This massive change in how things are produced and sold will reshape the way the global economy works.  Say goodbye to your precious Mercantilism and hello to some new ideas:

CAPITALISM: Get rid of that old Mercantilist way of doing things.  Adam Smith pioneered Capitalism in his work Inquiry into the Wealth of Nations (or justWealth of Nations).  Instead of government control of markets, individuals control the means of production and invest to make profits.  They then take those profits and reinvest.  The best products, ideas, services, etc. will succeed as the Invisible Hand pushes the market in the correct direction.  It is also known as Free Market capitalism or Laissez Faire due to the fact that the government does not get directly involved and the market decides on its own. 

CLASSICAL LIBERALISM: This is the movement that Capitalism flourished under.  It is the belief that during the Industrial Revolution, the new economy that emerged required a free market.  It required government to keep it’s hands-off (laissez-faire).  Think of it as the Tea Party Movement… The government needs to get its hands out of my ___________ (money, economy, rights, etc.)

MARXISM: The evil capitalists who control the means of production will grow so large and corrupt under the above that the people will rise up and take the means of production for themselves.  Then, they will share equally in the rewards.  In theory, the government will not even be needed as people will work for the sake of the community.  This sounds nice; but always ends with the deaths of tens of millions (Stalin, Mao).  It has never been fully implemented, but that’s because it’s an economic theory that can only exist in a perfect state/vacuum.

UTOPIAN SOCIALISM: Think of Utopian Socialism as the ideal under the early stages of Marxism.  Wealth is redistributed from rich to poor to provide equal opportunity for all.  This is most closely seen in Scandinavia today.

ANARCHISM: Some people just want to watch the world burn.  Anarchy is a state of no government.  Every man for himself.  It’s Rick, Darryl, and Michonne fending for themselves in a post-Apocalyptic Zombie-hellscape.  Ok.  Everything but the Zombies.

Posted on April 20, 2019 .


27 Days. 648 Hours. 38,880 Minutes.

We looked at the Industrial Revolution and how it worked.  But, what are the effects of this thing?


Here are some things that arose from the Industrial Revolution;


RAW MATERIAL PRODUCTION: Look at the map above to see where and what the Industrialists were after in terms of Raw Materials to use in production


FACTORY SYSTEM: People doing work away from their homes? Sounds so 19th century.  But, when factory owners streamlined labor into one building around advanced machines, productivity grew. 

SPREAD: If you can’t beat ‘em, join ‘em.  England couldn’t keep their industrial secret for long.  America, Russia, and the rest of Europe all quickly learned their methods and implemented them back at home.

SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: It’s hard to draw a hard line between IR 1.0 & IR 2.0 but it is essentially the second wave of inventions/innovations that expedited progress.  Best examples are Bessemer’s Steel and Automobiles.


GLOBAL ECONOMY: We’ll focus here in a few days, but the Industrialists sought out Materials and Markets around the world to sell their stuff and get materials to make more stuff.

DECLINE OF OLD ECONOMIES: If you lived in a non-Industrial region, you simply could not keep up with the Industrial strength of the West.  So, your economy is going to have a bad time. Example: Textile Industry in India suffered terribly as they were overrun with British textiles.


COMMUNICATION/TRANSPORTATION IMPROVEMENTS: These may seem obvious but with the Industrial revolution comes improvements like Railroads, Telegraphs, steamships, and Canals (most notably the Suez)

SOCIAL CLASSES: A new group emerged: THE MIDDLE CLASS. This was a group that filled in between the Peasants and Nobility.  Almost like the “Bourgeoisie”, they were often educated people who held skilled positions. Also, there was the INDUSTRIAL WORKING CLASS; this is basically anyone who went to work in the new factories.

UNSANITARY CONDITIONS: Coal is gross. It burns dirty. It made everything gross.  Also, living conditions in the new cities were not regulated and often amounted to nothing more than a shanty town.  Later regulations led to improvements, but initial industrial cities were gross.

EDUCATION: Kids were initially working in the factories (cheap labor). But, unions pushed to get the kids out of the factory (so they could get those jobs). But, what do we do with them? A: Book Learnin. Kids went to school and created an educated workforce/voting population. States could instill nationalism (did you say the Pledge of Allegiance yet today?). 

Posted on April 19, 2019 .


28 Days. 672 Hours. 40,320 Minutes.

We built this revolution. We built this revolution on advanced machinery.


The AP wants you to know two examples of machinery that led to all of the things we looked at yesterday.  And, its not just them; the Industrial Revolution was built on the backs of two power sources:

1. The Steam Engine (Improved by James Watt)

Prior to Watt’s invention, most factory’s still held close to rivers and used waterwheels as the key power source.  But, rivers freeze, overflow, etc.  There has to be a better way? James Watt, the Scottish inventor, developed what you see above.  Using the same small source of water, water is heated via burning coal that creates pressure that moves a piston and creates force.  Boom.  That’s it. That allows factories to be moved closer to ports and coal sources.  Also, you take this bad boy and strap it to a train or a boat; and you have a nice little energy source.

2. The Internal Combustion Engine

Most of you don’t have steam engines that get you from Point A to Point B. What you probably use more is the internal combustion engine (above). I’m no engineer but burning fuels (gas) directly in the engine creates more force than heated water (steam) can provide.  All I know is that if you crank up your car and hear a sound coming from under the hood, its one of these.  This may be the only thing on the AP test that you have in your possession… unless you have the plague… Then, sorry about that…

Tomorrow, what does it all mean? We’ve got Industrialization built on Steam and Gas… Where does it go from here? 

A: Global. Europe leaves the friendly confines and heads around the world for Markets for these industrial goods, and Materials (raw) for their factories.

Posted on April 18, 2019 .


29 Days.  696 Hours. 41,760 Minutes.

Take a look at the banner for the 1750-1900 era… Go ahead… look at it.

(These things don't make themselves :) )

(These things don't make themselves :) )

Anyway… The banner should tip you off to the THESIS of this era.  It’s the Industrial Revolution, stupid! (Sorry, you’re not stupid… You’re a unique intellectual star. It’s a famous quote popularized by President Clinton in the 90s as to how to win elections, “It’s the economy, stupid.”)

Yeah, it’s that big of a deal.  It changed everything.  And, when I say everything, I MEAN UHHRTHANG.  If I had 10 seconds to sum up human history to aliens, I would say, “People left Africa, farmed, Columbus, Industrial Revolution, Moon landing, Zelda.”  This is gonna take a couple days to cover, so… Industrial Revolution: DAY ONE:


The Industrial Revolution is the answer to a lot of questions.  Here are some:

What started in England and spread to Europe and America?

The Industrial Revolution. Europe was uniquely positioned for global domination following the Columbian Exchange.  Plus, the Atlantic System was the perfect highway system to funnel precious raw materials (I’m looking at you cotton) back to the continent…

What was totally fueled by timber, coal, and iron? 

The Industrial Revolution.  Your little spinning wheel in your house was made out of a tree that fell on your property a few years back.  Its powered by your feet.  That’s not revolutionary.  One spinning wheel isn’t cool.  You know what’s cool? A billion spinning wheels!

And that kind of production can’t happen in Mongolia or Mali.  It can’t happen in Arizona or Arabia.  It requires Raw Materials.  It’s no longer GOD GOLD & GLORY the Europeans want… It’s Raw Materials…

When did European population growth go through the roof?

The Industrial Revolution.  I’m not talking about, “Hey, did you hear the Andersons had another kid?” I’m talking about the entire population of Europe doubling in one century… Doubling.  From 100 million to 200 million.  

Cities sure are big these days… When did that start happening?

The Industrial Revolution.  Improvements in farming (Scientific Farming) and increases in population led people to the cities in search of work in the new factories.  Take a look at the two charts above.  Not a ton of European Cities on the left, but on the Right? It’s only cities that developed during the increase in Urbanization in this era. 

If the first Agricultural Revolution was the introduction of farming, when does the next Agricultural Revolution take place?

The Industrial Revolution. Scientific Farming put agriculture under the microscope. Crop rotation, selective breeding, etc. led to greater yields.  More food with less workers=more calories, more unemployed.  Luckily, there’s always those city jobs you can take in the big city.

All those rivers and canals in England/Europe… What could those help out with?

The Industrial Revolution.  How do you move product? Water.  It’s cheap and easy.  It fuels steam engines.  In England (where it all began) you can pretty much get anywhere within a few days.  Compare that to the United States or Russia…


Tomorrow, we look at the machinery all of this was built on.  Word.

Posted on April 17, 2019 .

30. A different kind of Revolution

30 Days. 720 Hours. 43,200 Minutes.

One month...

Not all revolutions are enlightened.  To be honest, a lot of them aren’t even revolutionary.  Everyone know George Washington and Maximilien Robespierre… But, Wovoka? Hong? Let’s look at some other ‘movements’ that weren’t so successful…


Spend most of your time in 5.3 on the Revolutions we went over a few days ago.  But, here are some other attempts (some successful, some not) that took place in this era.

Let’s start with the successes:

SLAVERY/SERFDOM ABOLISHED: This is a HUUUUUGE deal.  Up until this point slavery/serfdom had been omnipresent in most civilizations around the world.  But, through the work of the British Navy and women’s groups (among others) around the world, this scourge on humanity was erased from the earth.  Most notably by war in America, Tsarist Decree in Russia, and laws passed around the world. The last large one was Brazil in 1888.

SLAVE RESISTANCE: Who doesn’t like a good revenge story? Well, the ultimate one took place in Haiti where Maroon Societies (escaped slaves living in the hinterland) succeeded in overthrowing Napoleon.  Sadly, this is the ONLY time this worked.  Most often they were defeated by their former slave owners :(

SUFFRAGE: LADIES!!!!! You did it.  This is the era where women showed that they were equal (somewhat) to men.  At least in the field of suffrage (VOTING RIGHTS), women began to gain voting privilege in this era.  However, most women do not receive the right to vote until the beginning of the next era.  The roots of women’s suffrage took hold at the end of the 19th Century. 


REFORM MOVEMENTS: This could go in either category.  Some were somewhat successful (Tanzimat reforms) others were not (Self-strengthening movement).  You take the good… You take the bad… Here are some that didn’t work out:

CHALLENGES TO CENTRALIZED STATES: Not all states just conquered and succeeded everywhere.  In fact, all major empires that succeeded in expanding throughout their geographic region step forward… NOT SO FAST MUGHALS! The Mughals actually lost an expansionary war (Deccan Wars) to the Murathas.  It was a 27 year war where Aurangzeb’s goal of Mughal control of the subcontinent was forever shattered.

ANTI-COLONIALISM: Nobody likes an outsider moving into your territory and bossing you around, making you feel like a second class citizen.  Well, that’s exactly how Africa and Asia felt.  However, if you attempt to fight back against an Industrialized power, you’re gonna have a bad time.  The AP gives two examples: 

  1. SEPOY REBELLION: Indian soldiers in the British East India Trading Company were forced to use a gun that required them to ingest animal fat to open the protective packaging. This led to a rebellion that was squashed by the British in 1857. However, it was a big enough rebellion to cause Great Britain to take over for the British East India Co. (meet the new boss… same as the old boss)

  2. BOXER REBELLION: The Chinese peasants (along with the spirits of their ancestors) decided to fight back against foreign/Christian incursions into China. They were successful for a minute before being crushed by an international coalition of forces, including both Japan and the United States.

MILLENARIANISM: Technically, it MILLENARIANISM means a belief that the world will end on years ending in 1000; in this case it refers to a mystical belief that the world will end or a major change will occur due to an upcoming prophecy.  

Posted on April 16, 2019 .

31. You say you want a Revolution?


31 Days. 744 Hours. 44,640 Minutes.

This era, the Modern Period, truly breaks down into 4 big ideas:





To make things easier, let’s go chronologically and start with the Revolutions.


There are four major revolutions.  Luckily I have a page devoted to each.  

American Revolution 2.png

Obviously, the greatest revolution ever; it was also the first.  Click HERE for my page.

French Revolution.png

Next up, France.  This is also the order they appear in Assassin's Creed.  I could talk to you all day about the French Revolution.  HERE is a nice summary.  


Ever wonder why slaves never rise up and kill the slave masters? People have tried forever.  It only worked once.  Where? Haiti.  HERE is my page. 


Simon Bolivar was a beast.  He makes Washington and Robespierre look lazy.  HERE is my page for Latin American Revolutions.  

Posted on April 15, 2019 .


32 Days. 768 Hours. 46, 080 Minutes

Alright. Now that you know what's going down in this period, let's jump right in. This is weird, but I'm starting with 5.3 because reasons.


One of the major topics of this period is the Political Revolutions that took place.  They really changed the layout of the planet.  This is the first period where we've had major revolutionary changes to government systems.  That being said, these revolutions didn't happen overnight.  They have roots in the AGE OF REASON. This means you should spend some time focusing in on both the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment.


The Scientific Revolution actually began in the last era.  Most textbooks like to look at it along with the Enlightenment.  HERE  is the link to my Virginia SOL page on the Scientific Revolution.

The Enlightenment takes the logical approach to government.  It’s where all of the revolutions got their ideas.  It’s America. It’s Venezuela. It’s the National Assembly in France.  HERE is my Virginia SOL page on the Enlightenment.

Posted on April 14, 2019 .



33 Days. 792 Hours. 47,520 Minutes.

There it is.  We’ve only got TWO left.  Two eras.  33 days to cover it.  I think we can do it… 

Here's what this period looks like cartographically:

modern map.png

Here's what the MODERN PERIOD looks like Chronologically:

Posted on April 13, 2019 .

34. Land Based Empires


34 Days. 816 Hours. 48,960 Minutes.

Before we leave this period, there is one more group that we gotta talk about.  Who are they?

Let's run through them one by one:

The Manchu Empire came from our old friends north of the wall: THE JURCHEN.  They united under Nurhaci to become the Manchus.  The Manchus took advantage of the fall of the Ming Dynasty in China and took over.  They are the last Chinese Dynasty.  You also know them as the Qing Empire.  You can find more on them here.  

Arguably the greatest of the great Islamic Empires, the Mughals began as a Central Asian group descended from the Mongols.  They rose to take over India and see one of history's greatest rulers (literally, Akbar the Great means Great the Great).  They even build the Taj Mahal! This is the last group to rule India until the British take over in the next period.  Here is my page on the Mughal Empire.


When the Europeans were all crusading into the "Holy Land" during the last period; this was their worst nightmare.  A powerful, disciplined, organized Islamic empire knocking on their door to the east.  Well, here they are.  The Ottoman Empire are a massive empire that essentially took over for the Byzantines in 1453.  Religiously tolerant, militarily dominant, and perhaps the longest lasting empire ever; here is my page on the Ottoman Empire. 


The Russian Empire is the French Empire of the Land Based Empire.  Yeah, they have a land based empire, but it is truly of little consequence (for AP World) until the next period.  It is the largest nation on earth.  They do have Peter the Great.  But that's about it.  Here is my page on the Russian empire. 

Posted on April 12, 2019 .

35. New Kids on the Block (NKOTB)


35 Days. 840 Hours. 50,400 Minutes.

5 Weeks from this morning… You’ll be staring down the barrel of the AP World Exam. Just a heads up…

Today, we look at the business of European Maritime Reconnaissance.  That means Trading Companies.

4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion

After the Spanish and Portuguese split the world at the Treaty of Tordesillas, the colonial map of the world was set.  Well, it was set to them.  The British, Dutch (and to a lesser extent the French) saw the world as wide open.  They took their faster ships, better financing and took it around the world.  When the dust settles, the British are in India, the Dutch are in Oceania, and the French are… well… not really anywhere.


The British will build the largest empire in history during this era.  Bigger than the Persians.  Bigger than Napoleon.  Bigger than Hitler.  Way bigger.  Bigger than the Mongols.  Yeah, I said it.  Bigger than the Mongols.  Here’s the story of how the British took over..

The French are more of a Continental Europe power in this era.  I’m talking about Louis XIV and Versailles.  THE Centralized power of Europe.  But, this is all about Empire… And, the bulk of what will become the French Empire is taken in the next era… Just know that they did have one... Mainly Canada and some spots in Asia.  So, here’s my page on the French Empire.

The Dutch Empire is the peak of Dutch power in AP World History.  The Dutch East India Trading Company (VOC) is the biggest business in the history of the planet.  The Dutch countered the Spanish and Portuguese by leaving the missionaries at home and focusing on trade.  Here’s my page on the Dutch.

Posted on April 11, 2019 .

36. What time is it?

36 Days. 864 Hours. 51,840 Minutes.


Alright.  The Maritime Empires.  Maritime means Ocean-time.  So, Maritime Empires refers to the Empires that grew via overseas exploration.  Let’s look at the early one’s first…



Look at Portugal.  It’s shore is the end of the earth (according to Europeans prior to this point).  It’s also the furthest from the major trade routes.  Luckily, they did have the legacy of al-Andalus (the Cordoba Caliphate).  Otherwise, it was (insert whichever state your state looks down on; for me, that’s West Virginia).  

Luckily, the father of all Early Modern Navigators was born SECOND.  His brother was first in line and had plenty of kids.  So, Henry (Prince Henry the Navigator) devoted his life to navigation.  His school is specifically mentioned by the AP World curriculum as the starting point for Western navigation.  From there, he explored down the coast of Africa.  After him, many other explorers took what they learned here and went to India and even all the way around the world!  

Here is my page devoted to the Portuguese Empire.  It has maps, videos, and my notes on this empire.


The Spanish took what the Portuguese started and greatly expanded it.  The difference? Columbus.  An Italian sailing for Spain who found (although he never admitted to it) the New World.  This was the game changer.  This was the event that made this era, this era.  No one is more synonymous with exploration and conquering that the Spanish.  

Here’s a whole page devoted to the Spanish Empire.

Tomorrow, the new kids on the block.  Those who built on what the Spanish and Portuguese started.  Not only do they succeed, they prosper as much or more so than their predecessors.

Posted on April 10, 2019 .

37. Empires Strike Back


37 Days.  888 Hours. 53,280 Minutes.

The College Board wraps up this era (1450-1750) with a breakdown of the major players in the era.  They break it into NINE Empires.  But, since we are running low on time (888 Hours); we will break them down into three groups.

1. Early Maritime Empires (Spanish/Portuguese) 

2. Late Maritime Empires (English, Dutch, French)

3. Land Empires (Ottoman, Mughal, Manchu, Russian)


4.3 State Consolidation and Imperial Expansion:

Starting tomorrow, we will go over these empires; but today=how do these people consolidate (legitimize) their power?

religious ideas.jpeg

Training of Bureaucratic Beliefs: The Chinese are still using the Civil Service Exam.  The Ottomans use the Devshirme system (christian youths kidnapped, converted, and trained for service to the Sultan). 

Taxes: Yeah, the AP wants you to know that territorial expansion was funded by taxing your existing population.  Seems common sense… 

Sweet.  All that’s left for this era are the empires.  We’ll break those down over the next few days.  Starting with a Prince (who had no chance of ruling his country) instead opening a “school” for mariners (explorers) that changed the world forever…

Posted on April 9, 2019 .

38. Coerced Labor

38 Days. 912 Hours. 54,720 Minutes.

World Trade begins in this era.  It has massive effects.  One of the most lasting has to be how the people of the Americas/Africa were treated or ‘coerced’ (AP Word for ‘forced’) into different social classes/labor groups.  

4.2: New Forms of Social Organization and Modes of Production


This really breaks into two groups: Native Americans and Africans.  Here is the breakdown of this treatment. It also deals with new ruling groups in India, labor movements in Russia, and Feudal hierarchies in Japan/Europe.



The flip side of this coerced labor are the new political and economic elites that benefitted from all of this labor and expansion:

Posted on April 8, 2019 .

39. Early Modern Culture

39 Days. 936 Hours. 56,160 Minutes.

We’ve already looked at the major event of the Early Modern Era: European Maritime activity (that’s a nice way to put it… you could just call it Non-Stop Conquer-Fest-1492).  Let’s look at some of the Cultural things happening in this era… beyond the boats.

4.1 Globalizing Networks of Communication and Exchange:


The Cultural tidbits that they tie to the global expansion of trade are the following;


Tomorrow, we’ll look at 4.2 which is how the Europeans treated the people when they arrived in the new world.  This includes Slavery, Castas, and Encomienda…

Posted on April 7, 2019 .

40. Columbian Exchange

40 Days.  960 Hours.  57,600 Minutes.

(Fun historical side note: 950 Hours is how long General Schlieffen hypothesized it would take the Russians to mobilize and invade Germany before WWI. You have as long to study for the the AP World exam as it took to mobilize the largest army on the planet in 1914...)

OK.  So, you’ve seen the explorers and their impact.  But, we’ve overlooked a major event.  Arguably, the MAJOR EVENT of all time.  There are three major things that have happened since the Big Bang.

  1. Neolithic Revolution (Farming)

  2. Columbian Exchange (Trade)

  3. Industrial Revolution (Industry)

Let’s look at the one that dominates the Early Modern Era… The Columbian Exchange.


When I say its super important, I’m not just saying it because I think so (and I do).  The Columbian Exchange has been featured or cameo-ed in multiple AP World History essays.  Here are some common misconceptions:

  1. The Columbian Exchange was a trade route.

No.  It wasn’t.  The phrase “Columbian Exchange” wasn’t even coined until the 20th century.  It simply refers to the opening up of new ideas, raw materials, and disease that followed the European arrival in the New World. That’s all. 

     2. It all happened at once.

It’s not an it.  There is no it.  There is no thing.  It just refers to the gradual introduction of products, disease, and avacados.

    3. It only affected the 15th Century.

The impact of this thing is immense.  Why do Italians use tomatoes? The Columbian Exchange.  Why do Irish people eat potatoes? The Columbian Exchange.  Why are there so many Chinese people? The Columbian Exchange.  It’s kind of a big deal.

Argh. Enough boats. Tomorrow’s all about culture.  

Posted on April 6, 2019 .

41. Unleash the Europeans!

41 Days. 984 Hours. 59,040 Minutes.

See what I did there? Today is all about the Europeans leaving Europe... And, the pic is Dirk Nowitzki? Just checking....


It all starts with Prince Henry of Portugal.  He was the Grandfather of it all.  His school in Portugal was where Navigators went to learn the craft. Here’s a quick info graphic on the “remarkable” reconnaissance:

The Explorers and where they went are important.  But, don’t waste your life memorizing Herjolfson vs. Erickson or Magellan vs. Drake.  Instead, let’s focus on the economics that grew out of this:

TRADE COMPANIES: Investors pooled their money into corporations (often monopolies) that would foster trade around the world.  There were a ton of them.  Know TWO: Dutch East India Company (VOC) or British East India Trading Company.

SILVER: Turns out, there’s a mountain of silver (Potosi).  This silver was circulated around the world (it was the DBQ in 2006).  This movement of silver around the world is the first real traceable movement of currency.  This is going to go from the mines of Potosi, to the treasuries of the Chinese Emperors.

MERCANTILISM:  Embrace it.  It’s a scary word.  It simply is the way european nations attempted to expand their empires.  Rules:

1. Become Self Sufficient

2. Accumulate as much gold and silver as possible.

3. Acquire colonies and tax them in means of helping the Motherland.

TRADE ROUTE: The Atlantic System or the Triangle Trade.  This is the movement of goods across the Atlantic (and back).

Tomorrow, the most important thing to happen in the course thus far (arguably, at least since farming)…


Posted on April 5, 2019 .

42. Impact of Trade in the Early Modern

42 Days. 1,008 Hours. 60,480 Minutes.

We saw that the world got bigger yesterday.  So, what does it all mean?

4.1: Globalizing Networks of Communication & Exchange


The AP always wants to tip you off at the beginning of an era that the Trade Routes of the old era (Post-Classical 600-1450) intensified.  Don’t think that these other trade routes disappear.  They don’t.  Well, maybe the Trans-Saharan.  It definitely loses its pizzazz.  


But, let’s not bury the lead.  The star of this era is European Exploration.  You saw where they went yesterday.  But, how’d they get there? 

They needed new technology.  They needed better devices to determine their location.  So, if it’s the end of the Post-Classical era, and the dawn of a new era; where do you go to get these? China and the Caliphates (obvi).

Europeans used Islamic Astrolabes and Cartography (maps).  They also used the Chinese Compass.  They learned from the Muslims and from their own research about how Wind Patterns affect travel.  Also, they develop their own technology like the boats that dominated the early part of this era:


So, now we know how it was possible and have seen where they went. Tomorrow, we take a closer look at this Maritime Reconnaissance.  

Posted on April 4, 2019 .


43 Days. 1,032 Hours. 61,920 Minutes.

Finally, we’ve turned a corner.  The world starts to become “the world” in this era.  As you may have noticed from the banner above, this era is all about Maritime Reconnaissance (guys in boats going out and finding stuff).

Let’s take it easy today.  Here’s a nice overview of the Early Modern era.

First, here’s what the Early Modern Era looked like:


A local cartographer pieced this together.  It shows every place that the College Board mentions in the curriculum.  If you see it on the map, it is somewhere in the curriculum.  

As I said before, this era is dominated by the effects of European discovery.  So, before we look at the effects of these explorations (tomorrow), here are the Explorers/Conquistadors/etc.  you should know.  These journeys changed the game.

Look at ‘em go! OK.  Now that you’ve seen where they go, tomorrow; we see why that matters…

Posted on April 3, 2019 .

44. End of an Era...

44 Days. 1,056 Hours. 63,360 Minutes.

OK, let’s wrap up the Post Classical era… I’m tired of the Old World. Let’s build some empires! Start some stock companies! Gunpowder Empires!?! Yeah, it’s gonna be great.  But, first thing’s first:


Part of this section we mentioned a few days ago (The rise and fall of the Postclassical Cities).  But, here’s a chart for those of you just joining us.

Beyond the cities, there were some major continuities & changes that affected the masses.  One major was was via LABOR MANAGEMENT (how people worked).  The above link also includes a look at some of the revolts that affected the era.  (Keep in mind, the time for major successful revolutions is from 1750-present).  

The last tidbit of info from the Post Classical era is how the major religions (and their spread) affected gender and family roles.  What’s that? You want another fantastic info graphic? Today is your lucky day:


They also want you to know HOW people worked. As in, "What types of labor was being done in this period?" The answer...


See the one in the middle up there? Coerced labor? There are actually THREE versions of that going on in this period. Don't get ahead of us here. The most famous coerced labor system is in the next era (Transatlantic Slave Trade) But from 600-1450, Coerced labor looked like this:


We are TWO FULL eras away from the major revolutions (France, USA, Haiti, etc.) But, there were the seeds of rebellion being sewed in this period. These aren't enlightenment based revolutions based on Human Rights... But, these revolts are a start:


Last, and DEFINITELY NOT LEAST, there were spots on earth where women did have more rights than you might expect in this period:

Posted on April 2, 2019 .

45. Back to the Farm

45 Days. 1,080 Hours. 64,800 Minutes.

We’ve seen trade routes and how the people on these trade routes interacted.  But there are a few other innovations beyond Trade that affected earth’s social and economic outlooks.  Today, let’s look at the Agricultural and Industrial changes of the Post Classical era.


When it comes to the Agricultural changes… Some unknown website created this fantastic info graphic to breakdown these changes:


Beyond the agricultural changes, there were a few others as well.  Crops not only found new ways of growing (above), but crops themselves were shipped to different regions with similar climates.  The Byzantine Empire became a massive producer of silk!  Yeah, Greek Silk.  I know, it sounds weird.  But, it happened.

Also, the College Board wants you to know about the increase in textile production.  It was an increase; but nothing compared to the Modern Era (1450-1750) during the Industrial Revolution.  Also, China increased its iron and steel output (again, nothing like during the Industrial Revolution).

Tomorrow, we turn to the people.  How does all of this affect the masses? Especially in terms of Labor, Religion, and Family roles.  Then, we are done with the Post Classical and turn to the Early Modern!

Posted on April 1, 2019 .