Ahhh, Modernity. This is the period where, by the end, you could go back in time and kinda relate to what's going on (Industry, Democracy, School, etc.) This period picks up with two of its largest things happening simultaneously. First, the Industrial Revolution. First, in Britain, then Western Europe and the US; then... all over. This is a slow burn. Just like the Neolithic Revolution, this took a while. Farmers didn't just throw their pitchforks in the air and run into a factory. So, Industrialization spans this period... (and the next). The other big deal that starts pretty early is Political Revolutions... Including the one that did it FIRST... That did it BEST... is of course, the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA! But, others quickly followed based on Enlightenment principles. The other big thing going on in this period is Imperialism. You've Industrialized? Great. You probably need some raw materials. Why not use your super-dominant industrialized military to go and take them from people in Africa and Asia? That really wraps up this period (Also, Global Migrations are really starting to happen on a scale that we can call them Global Migrations).