The Land Empires are now established. So. How do you rule these massive, united chunks of land? Each one has it’s own unique way of functioning on a daily basis. Below are the people, means, systems, etc. that these Empires maintained power.
Below are the specific KEY CONCEPTS that apply to this sub-unit:
The new connections between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres resulted in the exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases, known as the Columbian Exchange.
Populations in Afro–Eurasia benefited nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.
nImperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites, including in China with the transition to the Qing Dynasty
The power of existing political and economic elites fluctuated as the elites confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders. n Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred, including demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the trade in enslaved persons.
Rulers continued to use religious ideas, art, and monumental architecture to legitimize their rule.
Many states, such as the Mughal and Ottoman empires, adopted practices to accommodate the ethnic and religious diversity of their subjects or to utilize the economic, political, and military contributions of different ethnic or religious groups.
In other cases, states suppressed diversity or limited certain groups’ roles in society, politics, or the economy.
Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals, became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources.
Rulers used tribute collection, tax farming, and innovative tax-collection systems to generate revenue in order to forward state power and expansion.
Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres.
Land empires included the Manchu in Central and East Asia; the Mughal in South and Central Asia; Ottoman in Southern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; and the Safavids in the Middle East.
Political and religious disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states.
Economic disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states.
State expansion and centralization led to resistance from an array of social, political, and economic groups on a local level.
CLIP #1: VENICE & THE OTTOMANS (from CRASH COURSE WORLD HISTORY)
CLIP #2: SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT
CLIP #3: THE JANISSARIES (during the Fall of Constantinople)
CLIP #4: LIFE of a JANISSARY (Mahmed under Sultan Selim during the wars against the Safavids)
CLIP #5: HISTORY SUMMARIZED: OTTOMAN EMPIRE (this covers the entirety of the Empire; but it’s pretty great)
CLIP #6: OTTOMAN MINIATURES
CLIP #7: AZTEC SACRIFICE
CLIP #8: DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS
CLIP #9: QING IMPERIAL PORTRAITS (This is one minute but it covers the sale of one of Qianlong’s , who ruled after Kangxi, concubines)
CLIP #10: CORICANCHA (The Incan Sun Temple in Cuzco… The most important temple to the Incas… but the stupid Spanish destroyed most of it and built a convent on top of it… :(
CLIP #11: TAJ MAJAL
CLIP #12: PALACE of VERSAILLES (cool infographic of how the palace grew to its current state)