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The Land Empires are now established. So. How do you rule these massive, united chunks of land? Each one has it’s own unique way of functioning on a daily basis. Below are the people, means, systems, etc. that these Empires maintained power.

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Below are the specific KEY CONCEPTS that apply to this sub-unit:

The interconnection of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, made possible by transoceanic voyaging, transformed trade and had a significant social impact on the world.

The interconnection of the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, made possible by transoceanic voyaging, transformed trade and had a significant social impact on the world.

  • The new connections between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres resulted in the exchange of new plants, animals, and diseases, known as the Columbian Exchange.

    • Populations in Afro–Eurasia benefited nutritionally from the increased diversity of American food crops.

Although the world's productive systems continued to be heavily centered on agriculture, major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes.

Although the world's productive systems continued to be heavily centered on agriculture, major changes occurred in agricultural labor, the systems and locations of manufacturing, gender and social structures, and environmental processes.

  • nImperial conquests and widening global economic opportunities contributed to the formation of new political and economic elites, including in China with the transition to the Qing Dynasty

  • The power of existing political and economic elites fluctuated as the elites confronted new challenges to their ability to affect the policies of the increasingly powerful monarchs and leaders. n Some notable gender and family restructuring occurred, including demographic changes in Africa that resulted from the trade in enslaved persons.

Empires achieved increased scope and influence around the world, shaping and being shaped by the diverse populations they incorporated.

Empires achieved increased scope and influence around the world, shaping and being shaped by the diverse populations they incorporated.

  • Rulers continued to use religious ideas, art, and monumental architecture to legitimize their rule.

  • Many states, such as the Mughal and Ottoman empires, adopted practices to accommodate the ethnic and religious diversity of their subjects or to utilize the economic, political, and military contributions of different ethnic or religious groups.

  • In other cases, states suppressed diversity or limited certain groups’ roles in society, politics, or the economy.

  • Recruitment and use of bureaucratic elites, as well as the development of military professionals, became more common among rulers who wanted to maintain centralized control over their populations and resources.

  • Rulers used tribute collection, tax farming, and innovative tax-collection systems to generate revenue in order to forward state power and expansion.

  • Imperial expansion relied on the increased use of gunpowder, cannons, and armed trade to establish large empires in both hemispheres.

  • Land empires included the Manchu in Central and East Asia; the Mughal in South and Central Asia; Ottoman in Southern Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa; and the Safavids in the Middle East.

  • Political and religious disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states.

  • Economic disputes led to rivalries and conflict between states.

  • State expansion and centralization led to resistance from an array of social, political, and economic groups on a local level.


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CLIP #1: VENICE & THE OTTOMANS (from CRASH COURSE WORLD HISTORY)

CLIP #2: SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT

CLIP #3: THE JANISSARIES (during the Fall of Constantinople)

CLIP #4: LIFE of a JANISSARY (Mahmed under Sultan Selim during the wars against the Safavids)

CLIP #5: HISTORY SUMMARIZED: OTTOMAN EMPIRE (this covers the entirety of the Empire; but it’s pretty great)

CLIP #6: OTTOMAN MINIATURES

CLIP #7: AZTEC SACRIFICE

CLIP #8: DIVINE RIGHT OF KINGS

CLIP #9: QING IMPERIAL PORTRAITS (This is one minute but it covers the sale of one of Qianlong’s , who ruled after Kangxi, concubines)

CLIP #10: CORICANCHA (The Incan Sun Temple in Cuzco… The most important temple to the Incas… but the stupid Spanish destroyed most of it and built a convent on top of it… :(

CLIP #11: TAJ MAJAL

CLIP #12: PALACE of VERSAILLES (cool infographic of how the palace grew to its current state)


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1. The True History of the Conquest of New Spain, 1576, Bernal Diaz del Castillo (AZTEC EMPIRE) (Use CTRL+F and search HEART)
2. The Chronicle of Peru, (this section discusses Coricancha/Curicancha) 1554, Cieza de Leon (INCAN EMPIRE)
3. The Turkish Devshirme, 1395 CE, Isadore Glabas, Bishop of Thessalonika (scroll down and you can see an excerpt…) (THESSALONIKIA, GREECE, OTTOMAN EMPIRE)
4. The Reciprocal and Mutual Duty Betwixt a Free King and His Natural Subjects, James VI of Scotland, later James I of England, 1598 (EDINBURGH, SCOTLAND)
5. The Permanent Settlement (This is about Zamindars working for the British, but this page gets into their history with the Mughals as well), 1793 (BENGAL, MUGHAL EMPIRE)


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1. CORICANCHA (Incan Sun Temple in Cusco), c. 1200, (CUSCO, INCA EMPIRE)

2. OTTOMAN JANISSARY RECRUITMENT IN THE BALKANS, c. 1518, Ottoman Miniature (ISTANBUL, OTTOMAN EMPIRE)

3. PALACE of VERSAILLES, c. 1661, LOUIS XIV, (FRANCE)

4. BATTLE OF CHALDIRON, c. 1514, (CHEHEL SOTOUN PALACE ISFAHAN, SAFAVID EMPIRE)

5. TAJ MAHAL, 1653 (AGRA, MUGHAL EMPIRE)

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1. Besides the Mongols, it had been since the Classical Period that this many large land empires coexisted.
2. They all use different variations of styles to rule over the masses of their peoples.
3. Some places used religion to justify their power (Divine Right in Europe, Shi’a Islam in Safavids, Islam in Songhai, Human Sacrifice for the Aztecs)
4. Others used monumental architecture to show that the rulers were legitimate(Versailles in France, Taj Mahal in the Mughal Empire, Coricancha in Incan Empire
5. They also collected taxs in different ways to bring in revenue… the Taj Mahal ain’t cheap. Versailles ain’t cheap.