DAR AL ISLAM BANNER FREEMANPEDIA GLOBAL TAPESTRY.JPG

The Global Tapestry (1200-1450) period also finds the Islamic world in the midst of a massive transition. The glory days of the Caliphates are behind us now and the once great Abbasids have fractured into many different groups (often dominated by the new, rising force in Islam: The Turks). Dar al-Islam literally means ‘House of Islam’, or basically the parts of the world where Islam is a dominant force. The New Kids on the Block are the Ottomans (who will dominate the next two periods in World History), the Seljuk Turks and the Mamluks. Like most of earth in this period, Dar al-Islam had to deal with the Mongols. The Mongols were seen, at the time, as the end of the Islamic World. This led to the Ilkhanate that only lasted for a century or so. In the next period, this area will be the realm of the Land Based Empires of the Ottomans, Safavids, and Mughals. With all of the political disarray, the Islamic World continued to be at the forefront of science, technology, and culture.

GEOGRAPHY+BANNER+FREEMANPEDIA+WORLD+HISTORY+II.jpg

Below are the specific KEY CONCEPTS that apply to this sub-unit:

3.1 key concept banner 2019.png
  • Improved commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing trade routes—including the Silk Roads, Trans-Saharan trade network, and Indian Ocean—promoting the growth of powerful new trading cities

  • The Indian Ocean trading network fostered the growth of states

  • The growth of inter-regional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including the Caravanserai, forms of credit, and the development of money economies as well as the use of the compass, the astrolabe and larger ship designs.

  • The expansion of empires—including the Mongols—facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new people were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.

  • The expansion of empires—including Mali in West Africa—facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new people were drawn into the economies and trade networks.

  • The expansion and intensification of long distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge, including advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds. The growth of inter-regional trade was encouraged by innovations in existing transportation technologies.

  • Muslim rule continued to expand to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants, missionaries, and Sufis.

  • In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous cultures and, in turn, indigenous cultures influenced merchant cultures.

  • As exchange networks intensified, an increasing number of travelers within Afro–Eurasia wrote about their travels.

  • Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions, as well as scientific and technological innovation.

    • Islam, Judaism, Christianity, and the core beliefs and practices of these religions continued to shape societies in Africa and Asia.

    • Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism, and their core beliefs and practices, continued to shape societies in South and Southeast Asia.

    • Christianity, Judaism, Islam and the core beliefs and practices of these religions continued to shape societies in Europe.

    • There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens, with epidemic diseases, including the bubonic plague, along trade routes.

3.2 key concept banner 2019.png
  • As the Abbasid Caliphate fragmented, new Islamic political entities emerged, most of which were dominated by Turkic peoples. These states demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity.

  • Empires collapsed in different regions of the world and in some areas were replaced by new imperial states, including the Mongol khanates.

  • In the Americas and in Africa, as in Eurasia, state systems demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity, and expanded in scope and reach.

  • Muslim states and empires encouraged significant intellectual innovations and transfers

  • Interregional contacts and conflicts between states and empires, including the Mongols, encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers, including during Chinese maritime activity led by Ming Admiral Zheng He.

3.3 key concept banner 2019.png
  • Demand for luxury goods increased in Afro–Eurasia. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export;

  • The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline and periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.


PEOPLE TO KNOW 2019 BANNER FREEMANPEDIA.JPG

TERMS TO KNOW FREEMANPEDIA.JPG

clip trailer freemanpedia banner 2019.JPG

CLIP #1: ISLAM (from CRASH COURSE World History)

CLIP #2: ISLAMICATE WORLD (from CRASH COURSE History of Science)

CLIP #3 CARAVANSERAI (from the Iranian Government… and this one is waaay newer, but it’s a decent overview)

CLIP #4: SUFISM (from Oprah?!?)

CLIP #5: SUFI WHIRLING DERVISHES (from Turkey via Viking Cruise lines)

CLIP #6: DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SUNNI AND SHIA (from French Press Agency AFP)

CLIP #7: WHAT IS A SULTANATE?

CLIP #8: HOUSE OF WISDOM (narrarated by Ben Kingsley… that’s right… Gandhi himself)

CLIP #9: HOW DID THE TURKS GET TO TURKEY? (from Knowledgia)

CLIP #10: HOW COPERNICUS COPIED NASIR AL TUSI (quick clip from the BBC)

CLIP #11: TRAILER: JOURNEY TO MECCA (Awesome IMAX documentary… it’s on YOUTUBE if you want to watch it. Just google it. But, it’s 45 minutes long. It’s a docudrama originally shown on IMAX screens around the world)

CLIP #12: IBN KHALDUN: THE FATHER OF MODERN ECONOMICS?!?


documents to know freemanpedia.JPG

1. The Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing, 820 CE, (translated into Latin in 1145), al-Khwarizmi (ABBASID CALIPHATE, Baghdad)
2. The Canon of Medicine, 1025 CE, Ibn Sina or Avicenna, (PERSIA/IRAN)
3. The Book of Pleasant Journeys into Faraway Lands, 1154 CE, al-Idrisi, (SICILY)
4. A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling, 1355 CE, Ibn Battuta (MOROCCO)
5. Introduction or Muqaddimah, 1377 CE, Ibn Khaldun (CAIRO, MAMLUK SULTANATE)


ART TO KNOW.jpg
alhambra art.jpg

1. ALHAMBRA, Emirate of Granada, 1355 CE

seljuk+carpet.jpg

2. Seljuk Rug, Konya, Anatolia, c. 1300

Mongol_soldiers_by_Rashid_al-Din_1305.jpg

3. Compendium of Chronicles, (the largest surviving body of Persian miniatures) Ilkhanate, 1305

jame yazd mosque.jpg

4. Jameh Mosque of Yazd, (example of Islamic Geometric designs) Buyid Dynasty (between Abbasids and Seljuks) Iran, 1365 CE

cairo+dome+interior.jpg

5. Khanqah of Sultan Barquq (interior of the massive dome), Mamluk Dynasty, Cairo, (1411)


tldr 2019.jpg

1. The Golden Age of the Islamic Caliphates is over by 1200. The Islamic world has fractured into smaller sultanates/dynasties by 1200.
2. The Islamic World is one of the MOST affected by the arrival of the Mongols and the creation of the Ilkhanate.
3. Stop thinking of Mecca or Medina or Baghdad as the center of Islamic influence. From here on, it will be Cairo (and in 1453), Istanbul.
4. If the Mongols are the muscle of this period, the Muslims and Chinese share the “brains” title. Although politically fractured; culturally, scientifically, medically, philosophically, and in the fields of poetry and literature; the Islamic World remains the center of Earth’s innovation from 1200-1450.
5. By 1450, the Islamic World has reached its geographic peak by 1450. With a few exceptions (Constantinople), the extent to which the Islamic World will expand after this period is minimal. In the next period, expansion is dominated by the Europeans.