SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIA BANNER FREEMANPEDIA GLOBAL TAPESTRY.JPG

It can be easy to overlook South and Southeast Asia in this period. They are at the crossroads of all of the major interactions of this period (Islam, Mongols, Trade), and are heavily influenced by their neighbors (Islam to the West and China to the Northeast). However, DO NOT SKIP THIS SECTION! There is such a rich history of Syncretism in this region, and with the addition of Islam; it creates some truly fascinating historical studies. Plus, this area will be of extreme focus next period as the Spanish, Portuguese, Dutch, French and British all move into the region.

GEOGRAPHY+BANNER+FREEMANPEDIA+WORLD+HISTORY+II.jpg

Below are the specific KEY CONCEPTS that apply to this sub-unit:

A deepening and widening of networks of human interaction within and across regions contributed to cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies.

A deepening and widening of networks of human interaction within and across regions contributed to cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies.

  • Improved commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade and expanded the geographical range of existing trade routes—including the Silk Roads, trans-Saharan trade network, and Indian Ocean—promoting the growth of powerful new trading cities.

  • The Indian Ocean trading network fostered the growth of states

  • The growth of inter-regional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including the caravanserai, forms of credit, and the development of money economies as well as the use of the compass, the astrolabe and larger ship designs.

  • The expansion of empires—including the Mongols—facilitated Afro-Eurasian trade and communication as new people were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.

  • The expansion and intensification of long distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge, including advanced knowledge of the monsoon winds. The growth of inter-regional trade was encouraged by innovations in existing transportation technologies.

  • Muslim rule continued to expand to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants, missionaries, and Sufis

  • In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous cultures and, in turn, indigenous cultures influenced merchant cultures.

  • As exchange networks intensified, an increasing number of travelers within Afro–Eurasia wrote about their travels.

  • Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions, as well as scientific and technological innovation.

    • Chinese cultural traditions continued, and they influenced neighboring regions.

    • Buddhism and its core beliefs continued to shape societies in Asia and included a variety of branches, schools, and practices.

    • Hinduism, Islam, and Buddhism, and their core beliefs and practices, continued to shape societies in South and Southeast Asia.

State formation and development demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity in various regions.

State formation and development demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity in various regions.

  • As the Abbasid Caliphate fragmented, new Islamic political entities emerged, most of which were dominated by Turkic peoples. These states demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity

  • State formation and development demonstrated continuity, innovation, and diversity, including the new Hindu and Buddhist states that emerged in South and Southeast Asia.

  • Muslim states and empires encouraged significant intellectual innovations and transfers.

  • Inter-regional contacts and conflicts between states and empires, including the Mongols, encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers, including during Chinese maritime activity led by Ming Admiral Zheng He.

Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes.

Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes.

  • Demand for luxury goods increased in Afro–Eurasia. Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export; manufacture of iron and steel expanded in China.

  • The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline and periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.


PEOPLE TO KNOW 2019 BANNER FREEMANPEDIA.JPG
MARCO POLO.JPG
ZHENGHE.JPG
IBN BATTUTA.JPG
TAMERLANE.JPG

TERMS TO KNOW FREEMANPEDIA.JPG

clip trailer freemanpedia banner 2019.JPG

CLIP #1 CRASH COURSE WORLD HISTORY: The Monsoon Marketplace

CLIP #2: ANGKOR WAT TEMPLE

CLIP #3 VOYAGES OF ZHENGHE

CLIP #4: MAJAPAHIT: INTRODUCTION

CLIP #5: MAJAPAHIT: vs. the MONGOLS

CLIP #6: TAMERLANE


documents to know freemanpedia.JPG

1. Sulalatus Salatin , (literally, Genealogy of Kings, traces the origins of the Malacca Sultanate), c. 1450, (MALACCA SULTANATE)
2. The Tale of the Four Dervishes, c. 1250, Amir Khurso (“Father of Urdu Literature”) (DELHI SULTANATE)
3. A Chant on the Mustard Hut, c. 1350, Tran Minh Tong (DAI VIET)
4. A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Travelling, (this has excerpts of Ibn Battuta’s 7 years as a judge in the Delhi Sultanate), c. 1354 (DELHI SULTANATE)


borobodir.jpg

1. BOROBUDUR, (Largest Buddhist temple on the planet), 9th Century-14th Century (INDONESIA)

bagan.jpg

2. BAGAN, (collection of 10,000 Buddhist temples), 850-1287 CE (MYANMAR, PAGAN KINGDOM)

andkgor+wat.jpg

3. ANGKOR WAT,(Hindu temple transformed into a Buddhist Temple), 1150-1550 CE (CAMBODIA, KHMER EMPIRE)

Hanoi_Temple_of_Litterature.jpg

4. TEMPLE OF LITERATURE, 1070 CE (HANOI, VIETNAM)

Tome_of_Shah_Rukn-e-Alam.jpg

4. TOMB OF SHAH RUKN-E-ALAM, 1324 CE, (PAKISTAN, DELHI SULTANATE)

qutb minar.jpg

5. QUTB MINAR, (240 feet tall Minaret), 1192 CE (DELHI SULTANATE)

tldr 2019.jpg

1. South and Southeast Asia are primarily a place to focus on the convergence of three religions: ISLAM, HINDUISM, & BUDDHISM.
2. Focusing on these areas in this period (1200-1450) is something super rare: THEY DEFEATED/DEFENDED AGAINST the MONGOLS!!!
3. India is dominated by Hinduism, but in this period (and the next: Mughal Empire) they will be ruled by Muslims: the Delhi Sultanate.
4. All of the big World Travelers hit up both SOUTH & SOUTHEAST Asia during this period: ZHENGHE, MARCO POLO, & IBN BATTUTA (he was a judge in the Delhi Sultanate for 7 years!)
5. Sadly, this is the end of independence in this area for a looooooooong time. In 1498, Portuguese conquistador Vasco da Gama opens the door for the Europeans to begin their domination of this region :(