I. ARCHEOLOGICAL EVIDENCE INDICATES THAT DURING THE PALEOLITHIC ERA, HUNTER-FORAGER BANDS OF HUMANS GRADUALLY MIGRATED FROM THEIR ORIGIN IN EAST AFRICA TO EURASIA, AUSTRALIA, AND THE AMERICAS, ADAPTING THEIR TECHNOLOGY AND CULTURES TO NEW CLIMATE REGIONS.
BEGINNING ABOUT 10,000 YEARS AGO, SOME HUMAN COMMUNITIES ADOPTED SEDENTISM AND AGRICULTURE, WHIL OTHERS PURSUED HUNTER-FORAGER OR PASTORIALIST LIFESTYLES--DIFFERENT PATHWAYS THAT HAD SIGNIFICANT SOCIAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC RAMIFICATIONS.
I. The Neolithic Revolution led to the development of more complex economic and social systems.
II. Agriculture and pastoralism began to transform human societies.
From about 5,000 years ago, urban societies developed, laying the foundations for the first civilizations. The term civilization is normally used to designate large societies with cities and powerful states. While there were many differences between civilizations, they also shared important features. They all produced agricultural surpluses that permitted significant specialization of labor. All civilizations contained cities and generated complex institutions, such as political bureaucracies, armies, and religious hierarchies. They also featured clearly stratified social hierarchies and organized long-distance trading relationships. Economic exchanges intensified within and between civilizations, as well as with nomadic pastoralists. As populations grew, competition for surplus resources, especially food, led to greater social stratification, specialization of labor, increased trade, more complex systems of government and religion, and the development of record keeping. As civilizations expanded, they had to balance their need for more resources with environmental constraints such as the danger of undermining soil fertility. Finally, the accumulation of wealth in settled communities spurred warfare between communities and/or with pastoralists; this violence drove the development of new technologies of war and urban defense.
THE APPEARANCE OF THE FIRST URBAN SOCIETIES 5,000 YEARS AGO LAID THE FOUNDATIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF COMPLEX CIVILIZATIONS; THESE CIVILIZATIONS SHARED SEVERAL SIGNIFICANT SOCIAL, POLITICAL, AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS.
1. Core and foundational civilizations developed in a variety of geographical and environmental settings where agriculture flourished.
II. The first states emerged within core civilizations in Mesopotamis and the Nile River Valley.
III. Culture played a significant role in unifying states through laws, language, literature, religion, myths, and monumental art.
F. Social hierarchies, including patriarchy, intensified as states expanded and cities multiplied.
HUMANS LEFT AFRICA AND BEGAN USING TOOLS & FIRE.
NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION (FARMING) AROUND THE RIVER VALLEYS GAVE WAY TO CIVILIZATION.
CIVILIZATION BROUGHT STRATIFICATION & SPECIALIZATION,
CIVILIZATION BROUGHT MASSIVE ARCHITECTURE AND WRITING.
TWO EARLY RELIGIONS BEGIN IN THIS ERA (HINDUISM/JUDAISM)