By 1500, additional forces weakened the Church. The Renaissance emphasis on the secular and the individual challenged Church authority. The printing press spread these secular ideas. In addition, rulers resented the popes' attempts to control them. In Germany--divided into many competing states-- it was difficult for the pope or the emperor to impose central authority. Finally, northern merchants resented paying church taxes to Rome. Spurred by political and social forces, a new movement for religious reform began in Germany. It then swept much of Europe.
Explain the effects of the theological, political, and economic differences that emerged:
Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome
-Merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury.
-German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church.
-The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict.
-Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict.
Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)
-Views: Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God
-Actions: 95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church
John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)
-Views: Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic
-Actions: Expansion of the Protestant Movement
King Henry VIII
-Views: Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome
-Actions: Divorced; broke with Rome; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England
Queen Elizabeth I
-Tolerance for dissenters
-Expansion and colonialism
-Victory over the Spanish Armada (1588)
Describe the impact of religious conflicts, the Inquisition, and Catholic Reformation on society and government actions.
Reformation in Germany
-Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending the authority of the Pope in their states.
-The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church.
-Conflict between Protestants and Catholics resulted in devastating wars (e.g., Thirty Years’ War).
Reformation in France
-Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later revoked).
-Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years’ War from a religious to a political conflict.
-Dissenters before Martin Luther: Jan Huss, John Wycliffe
-The Council of Trent reaffirmed most Church doctrine and practices.
-The Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world.
-The Inquisition was used to reinforce Catholic doctrine.
Describe changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies, and assessing the role of the printing press.
Changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies
-Growth of secularism
-Growth of individualism
-Eventual growth of religious tolerance
Role of the printing press
-Growth of literacy was stimulated by the Gutenberg printing press.
-The Bible was printed in English, French, and German.