The Classical Era  set the scene.  It brought us the major civilizations, religions, and trade routes.  But, what happens when all of the major world powers collapse?  This is the Post-Classical era.  The major world powers come from places you might not expect.  There are some powers that are similar to the ones before and the ones after (Byzantine, China).  But, the major players in the Post-Classical era come from totally backwards places.  One sprouts out of a cave in the Arabian desert.  The other comes from the base of a mountain on the steppes in Central Asia.  I call this era, Muslims & Mongols.  That's not everything, but it just about sums up the basics. (Of course, Trade, Migrations, Religion, and Labor are important...) The Post Classical Era is the FIRST era that represents 20% of the test.  From here on out, these eras are worth more than the first two.  Pay attention...

The Classical Era  set the scene.  It brought us the major civilizations, religions, and trade routes.  But, what happens when all of the major world powers collapse?  This is the Post-Classical era.  The major world powers come from places you might not expect.  There are some powers that are similar to the ones before and the ones after (Byzantine, China).  But, the major players in the Post-Classical era come from totally backwards places.  One sprouts out of a cave in the Arabian desert.  The other comes from the base of a mountain on the steppes in Central Asia.  I call this era, Muslims & Mongols.  That's not everything, but it just about sums up the basics. (Of course, Trade, Migrations, Religion, and Labor are important...) The Post Classical Era is the FIRST era that represents 20% of the test.  From here on out, these eras are worth more than the first two.  Pay attention...

WARNING LINE BELOW.JPG

KEY CONCEPT 3.1: EXPANSION & INTENSIFICATION of COMMUNICATION & EXCHANGE NETWORKS
Although Afro-Eurasia and the Americas remained separate from one another, this era witnessed a deepening and widening of old and new networks of human interaction within and across regions. The results were unprecedented concentrations of wealth and the intensification of cross-cultural exchanges. Innovations in transportation, state policies, and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, technological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies. Pastoral or nomadic groups played a key role in creating and sustaining these networks. Expanding networks fostered greater interregional borrowing, while at the same time sustaining regional diversity. The prophet Muhammad promoted Islam, a new major monotheistic religion at the start of this period. It spread quickly through practices of trade, warfare, and diffusion characteristic of this period. (2012 CONTINUITIES & CHANGE ESSAY

1. Improved transportation technologies and commercial practices led to an increased volume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly active trade networks.

The growth of inter-regional trade in luxury goods (silk and cotton textiles, porcelain, spices, precious metals and gems, slaves, exotic animals)

The growth of inter-regional trade in luxury goods (silk and cotton textilesporcelainspices, precious metals and gems, slaves, exotic animals)

Trade was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization (Caravanserai, Camel saddles);

Trade was encouraged by significant innovations in previously existing transportation and commercial technologies, including more sophisticated caravan organization (CaravanseraiCamel saddles);

Use of the compass, astrolabe,

Use of the compassastrolabe,

 larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization (Bills of exchange, Credit, Checks, Banking houses).

 larger ship designs in sea travel; and new forms of credit and monetization (Bills of exchangeCreditChecksBanking houses).

Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices (Minting of coins, use of paper money)

Commercial growth was also facilitated by state practices (Minting of coinsuse of paper money)

Trading organizations  (HANSEATIC LEAGUE)

Trading organizations  (HANSEATIC LEAGUE)

State-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China.

State-sponsored commercial infrastructures like the Grand Canal in China.

The expansion of EMPIRES facilitated Trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors’ economies and trade networks.

  • Required examples of empires:

*WARNING: THE FOLLOWING ARE NOT REQUIRED SOCIETIES BY THE COLLEGE BOARD... BUT THEY'RE STILL IMPORTANT.*

2. The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.

The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations to it

The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on environmental knowledge and technological adaptations to it

Some migrations had a significant environmental impact. Required examples of migration and their environmental impact The migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa.  The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands (See the video below for the Polynesian story)

Some migrations had a significant environmental impact. Required examples of migration and their environmental impact
The migration of Bantu-speaking peoples who facilitated transmission of iron technologies and agricultural techniques in Sub-Saharan Africa.  The maritime migrations of the Polynesian peoples who cultivated transplanted foods and domesticated animals as they moved to new islands (See the video below for the Polynesian story)

Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages (spread of Bantu languages including Swahili, Spread of Turkic and Arabic languages)throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages.

Some migrations and commercial contacts led to the diffusion of languages (spread of Bantu languages including Swahili, Spread of Turkic and Arabic languages)throughout a new region or the emergence of new languages.

3. Cross-cultural exchanges were fostered by the intensification of existing, or the creation of new, networks of trade and communication.

Islam, based on the revelations of the prophet Muhammad, developed in the Arabian peninsula. The beliefs and practices of Islam reflected interactions among Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians with the local Arabian peoples. Muslim rule expanded to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion, and Islam subsequently expanded through the activities of merchants and missionaries

In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities (Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean region, Chinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia, Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia, Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean Basin, or along the silk roads)where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.

In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporic communities (Muslim merchant communities in the Indian Ocean regionChinese merchant communities in Southeast Asia, Sogdian merchant communities throughout Central Asia, Jewish communities in the Mediterranean, Indian Ocean Basin, or along the silk roads)where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.

The writings of certain interregional travelers (Ibn Battuta, Marco Polo, Xuanzang)illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding.

The writings of certain interregional travelers (Ibn BattutaMarco PoloXuanzang)illustrate both the extent and the limitations of intercultural knowledge and understanding.

Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions (Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholars, return of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia, Spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe).

Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions (Greek and Indian mathematics on Muslim scholarsreturn of Greek science and philosophy to Western Europe via Muslim al-Andalus in Iberia, Spread of printing and gunpowder technologies from East Asia into the Islamic empires and Western Europe).

4. There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern Hemisphere along the trade routes.

New foods and agricultural techniques (Bananas in Africa, New rice varieties in East Asia, Spread of Cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar-al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin)were adopted in populated areas.

New foods and agricultural techniques (Bananas in Africa, New rice varieties in East Asia, Spread of Cotton, sugar, and citrus throughout Dar-al-Islam and the Mediterranean basin)were adopted in populated areas.

The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquest.

The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well established paths of trade and military conquest.

KEY CONCEPT 3.2:  CONTINUITY & INNOVATION IN STATE FORMS & THEIR INTERACTIONS
State formation in this era demonstrated remarkable continuity, innovation and diversity in various regions. In Afro-Eurasia, some states attempted, with differing degrees of success, to preserve or revive imperial structures, while smaller, less centralized states continued to develop. The expansion of Islam introduced a new concept — the Caliphate— to Afro-Eurasian statecraft. Pastoral peoples in Eurasia built powerful and distinctive empires that integrated people and institutions from both the pastoral and agrarian worlds. In the Americas, powerful states developed in both Meso-America and the Andean region.

1. Empires collapsed and were reconstituted; in some regions new state forms emerged. (2011 COMPARE-CONTRAST ESSAY TOPIC) (2014 COMPARE CONTRAST ESSAY)


  • Following the collapse of empires, most reconstituted governments, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties — SuiTang, and Song — combined traditional sources of power and legitimacy (Patriarchy, Religion, Land-owning elites) with innovations (New methods of taxation, Tributary systems, Adaptation of Religious Institutionsbetter suited to the current circumstances. (SEE BELOW)


Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions (Persian traditions that influenced Islamic States, Chinese traditions that influenced Japan)

Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions (Persian traditions that influenced Islamic StatesChinese traditions that influenced Japan)


  • In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach: Networks of city-states flourished in the Maya region and, at the end ofthis period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica (“Aztecs”) and Inca.

2. Inter-regional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural transfers.

Across the Mongol empires

Across the Mongol empires

During the Crusades

KEY CONCEPT 3.3: INCREASED ECONOMIC PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY & ITS CONSEQUENCES
Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes. Productivity rose in both agriculture and industry. Rising productivity supported population growth and urbanization but also strained environmental resources and at times caused dramatic demographic swings. Shifts in production and the increased volume of trade also stimulated new labor practices, including adaptation of existing patterns of free and coerced labor. Social and gender structures evolved in response to these changes.

1. Innovations stimulated agricultural and industrial production in many regions.

Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations (Champa rice varieties, chinampa field systems, Waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areas, Improved terracing techniques, horse collar)

Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations (Champa rice varietieschinampa field systems, Waru waru agricultural techniques in the Andean areas, Improved terracing techniqueshorse collar)

  • In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions.
  • Chinese, Persian, and Indian artisans and merchants expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export; industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.

2. The fate of cities varied greatly, with periods of significant decline, and with periods of increased urbanization buoyed by rising productivity and expanding trade networks.

While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers, many older cities declined at the same time that numerous new cities emerged to take on these established roles. Students should be able to explain the cultural, religious, commercial and governmental function of at least two major cities. THE RISE AND FALL OF POST-CLASSICAL CITIES PDF

While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious, and commercial centers, many older cities declined at the same time that numerous new cities emerged to take on these established roles.

Students should be able to explain the cultural, religious, commercial and governmental function of at least two major cities.

THE RISE AND FALL OF POST-CLASSICAL CITIES PDF

The Little Ice Age is tied directly to the decline in urban population.

3. Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the effect of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.

As in the previous period, there were many forms of labor organization. Required examples of forms oflabor organization -Free peasant agriculture -Nomadic pastoralism -Craft production and guild organization -Various forms of coerced and unfree labor -Government-imposed labor taxes -Military obligations Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts. The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.  One illustrative example of regions where free peasants revolted either from the list below or an example of your choice: - China -The Byzantine Empire NEW LABOR MANAGEMENT PDF

As in the previous period, there were many forms of labor organization. Required examples of forms oflabor organization

-Free peasant agriculture

-Nomadic pastoralism

-Craft production and guild organization

-Various forms of coerced and unfree labor

-Government-imposed labor taxes

-Military obligations

Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revoltsThe demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased, particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa, and the eastern Mediterranean.  One illustrative example of regions where free peasants revolted either from the list below or an example of your choice:

China

-The Byzantine Empire

NEW LABOR MANAGEMENT PDF

The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure

The diffusion of BuddhismChristianity, Islam, and Neoconfucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure

Marco_Polo.png
The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

What's the largest religious monument in the world? You're looking at it.  Angkor Wat ("Temple City")'s such a big deal, it's on Cambodia's flag!  It began as a Hindu temple to Vishnu, but later became a buddhist temple (which it remains to this day). 50% of every tourist who visits Cambodia, visits Angkor Wat. Two Indonesian airlines offer direct flights just to see this structure. 

What's the largest religious monument in the world? You're looking at it.  Angkor Wat ("Temple City")'s such a big deal, it's on Cambodia's flag!  It began as a Hindu temple to Vishnu, but later became a buddhist temple (which it remains to this day). 50% of every tourist who visits Cambodia, visits Angkor Wat. Two Indonesian airlines offer direct flights just to see this structure. 

What's the Greatest thing in Zimbabwe? A: Great Zimbabwe.  I know what you're thinking, "The other buildings/art in this era are more impressive.  But, it was built 5,000 miles south of Europe.  It's the second oldest structure in Southern Africa.  It once held 18,000 people.  The walls are built without mortar! So, don't hate on Great Zimbabwe... It was the seat of one of the greatest kingdoms in Southern Africa. 

What's the Greatest thing in Zimbabwe? A: Great Zimbabwe.  I know what you're thinking, "The other buildings/art in this era are more impressive.  But, it was built 5,000 miles south of Europe.  It's the second oldest structure in Southern Africa.  It once held 18,000 people.  The walls are built without mortar! So, don't hate on Great Zimbabwe... It was the seat of one of the greatest kingdoms in Southern Africa. 

The most powerful Christian state in this era was the Byzantine Empire.  In their most famous church (see Hagia Sophia from the last era) they put up a mosaic of Jesus. This is one of many mosaics within the church.  This is considered the beginning of the Byzantine Renaissance.  If you zoomed out, you would see both John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary. 

The most powerful Christian state in this era was the Byzantine Empire.  In their most famous church (see Hagia Sophia from the last era) they put up a mosaic of Jesus. This is one of many mosaics within the church.  This is considered the beginning of the Byzantine Renaissance.  If you zoomed out, you would see both John the Baptist and the Virgin Mary. 

Alhambra ("The Red One") is the most famous piece of Islamic architecture in Spain.  It's a palace complex built by the last Islamic dynasty to rule Spain (Nasrid Dynasty 1232-1492).  Even Charles V (One of Europe's most powerful people in the next era) built his offices within A beg Lhambra.  It actually fell into disrepair before being rebuilt in the 19th Century.  Today, it is one of Spain's biggest tourist attractions. 

Alhambra ("The Red One") is the most famous piece of Islamic architecture in Spain.  It's a palace complex built by the last Islamic dynasty to rule Spain (Nasrid Dynasty 1232-1492).  Even Charles V (One of Europe's most powerful people in the next era) built his offices within A beg Lhambra.  It actually fell into disrepair before being rebuilt in the 19th Century.  Today, it is one of Spain's biggest tourist attractions. 

Notre Dame is probably the most famous church on earth.  From the stained glass to the Flying Buttresses, Notre Dame is an iconic building in the center of Paris.  Speaking of Buttresses.... Check out those Buttresses.  This was one of the first buildings to use buttresses to displace the weight of the roof outward.  Napoleon crowned himself emperor inside.  You want relics? How about a piece of the true cross, the crown of thorns, and a nail from the cross? When it comes to cathedrals, this is your best example.   

Notre Dame is probably the most famous church on earth.  From the stained glass to the Flying Buttresses, Notre Dame is an iconic building in the center of Paris.  Speaking of Buttresses.... Check out those Buttresses.  This was one of the first buildings to use buttresses to displace the weight of the roof outward.  Napoleon crowned himself emperor inside.  You want relics? How about a piece of the true cross, the crown of thorns, and a nail from the cross? When it comes to cathedrals, this is your best example.   

  1. EDICT on BUDDHISM, c. 845, Emperor Wuzong, (CHINA)
  2. CHARTER of FEALTY, 1110, Monk John (FRANCE)
  3. 1,001 ARABIAN NIGHTS, c. 1200, (ARABIA)
  4. EPIC of SUNDIATA, c. 1300 (MALI)
  5. TRAVELS in AFRICA & ASIA, 1354, Ibn Battuta (MOROCCO)
  1. OVER HALF OF THIS ERA IS TRADE.  OLD TRADE ROUTES EXPANDED AND NEW ONES EMERGED (AND ALL THE LOVELY THINGS THAT COME WITH IT; DISEASE, RELIGIONS, CROPS, PEOPLE).

  2. FORGET CLASSICAL PEOPLES, THIS ERA IS DOMINATED BY TWO NEW GROUPS MUSLIMS & MONGOLS. 

  3. REMEMBER THE ASHES OF THE CLASSICAL PEOPLES; FEUDAL EUROPE, BYZANTINES, & RENAISSANCE CHINA.

  4. SPECIFIC PEOPLE MOVEMENTS ARE STRESSED HERE (MIGRATIONS, LANGUAGES, PEOPLES)

  5. QUICK LOOK AT THE LITTLE GUY: LABOR, FARMING, URBAN LIFE