The previous era was dominated by European discovery.  This era is dominated by how these Europeans handled their new-found success both ECONOMICALLY (Industrial Revolution) & POLITICALLY (Revolutions)**.  Much like the Mongols and Muslims of the Post Classical, this era is essentially the Industrial Revolution & the Enlightenment-driven Revolutions (French, US, Latin America, etc.).  One could argue that the Industrial Revolution is the most important thing that ever happened.  Besides the Columbian Exchange, its the only other thing I can guarantee that will be on the AP test.  This is also the only era with 4 subsections: Industrial Revolution, Imperialism, Revolution, and Migration. This is the Modern Era...

(**WARNING: DO NOT GET TOO EURO HERE.  LOOKING THROUGH THE CURRICULUM BELOW, IT SEEMS THAT THE FOCUS OF THIS ERA IS EUROPE/WEST.  EUROPE's DOMINATION WAS ONLY ASSURED BY THE END OF THE PERIOD, 1900.  IN 1750, CHINA IS THE WORLD's BIGGEST MANUFACTURER. CHINA WILL REMAIN THE LARGEST MANUFACTURER UNTIL THE 1830s AND WASN't SURPASSED BY THE US UNTIL THE 1880s. SO, DON'T SKIP PAST CHINA, JAPAN, the OTTOMANS, LATIN AMERICA, and AFRICA!!!!)


Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.
 

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I. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced

B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to take advantage of vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The fossil fuels revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.

B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to take advantage of vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The fossil fuels revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.

Watt's Steam Engine

Watt's Steam Engine

Internal Combustion Engine

Internal Combustion Engine

C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.

C. The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.

D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.

D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.

E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.

E. The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.

II. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw Materials and new Markets (M&Ms) for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.

A. The need for raw materials for the facotires and increased food supplies for the growing population  in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the worl that specialized in commercial extractin of natural resources and the production of food and industrial crops. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.

A. The need for raw materials for the facotires and increased food supplies for the growing population  in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the worl that specialized in commercial extractin of natural resources and the production of food and industrial crops. The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.

B. The rapid development of steam powered industrial production in European countries and the U.S. contributed to the increase in these regions' share of global manufacturing during the first Industrial Revolution. While Middle Eastern and Asian countries continued to produe manufactured goods, these regions' share in global manufacturing declined.

B. The rapid development of steam powered industrial production in European countries and the U.S. contributed to the increase in these regions' share of global manufacturing during the first Industrial Revolution. While Middle Eastern and Asian countries continued to produe manufactured goods, these regions' share in global manufacturing declined.

C. The global economy of the 19th century expanded dramatically from the previous period due to the increased exchanges of ra materials and finished goods in most parts of the world. Trade in some commodities was organized in a way that gave merchants and companies based in Europe and the US, a distinct economic advantage. 

III. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions.

A. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.

A. The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.

B. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses(United Fruit Company, The HSBC- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation... which currently owns freemanpedia.com which is why I had to put the stupid dash in my domain name. That's right. HSBC is still out there and were able to scoop up my precious domain name before I switched from wikispaces to squarespace... end of  rant)...

B. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses(United Fruit CompanyThe HSBC- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation... which currently owns freemanpedia.com which is why I had to put the stupid dash in my domain name. That's right. HSBC is still out there and were able to scoop up my precious domain name before I switched from wikispaces to squarespace... end of  rant)...

B. The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses(United Fruit CompanyThe HSBC- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation... which currently owns freemanpedia.com which is why I had to put the stupid dash in my domain name. That's right. HSBC is still out there and were able to scoop up my precious domain name before I switched from wikispaces to squarespace... end of  rant)...

...that relied on various financial instruments (Stock markets, insurance, Gold standard, Limited liability corporations like Freemanpedia LLC!).

...that relied on various financial instruments (Stock markets, insurance, Gold standard, Limited liability corporations like Freemanpedia LLC!).

IV. There were major developments and innovations in transportation and communication Required examples of developments in transportation and communication

V. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.

A. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves (often into labor unions) to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wage. Workers' movements and political parties emerged in different areas, promoting alternative visions of society, including (Marxism, Anarchism).

A. In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves (often into labor unions) to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wage. Workers' movements and political parties emerged in different areas, promoting alternative visions of society, including (MarxismAnarchism).

B. In response to the expansion of industrializing states, some governments in Asia and Africa such as the Ottoman Empire and Qing China, sought to reform and modernize their economies and militaries. Reform efforts were often resisted by some members of government or established

B. In response to the expansion of industrializing states, some governments in Asia and Africa such as the Ottoman Empire and Qing China, sought to reform and modernize their economies and militaries. Reform efforts were often resisted by some members of government or established

C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization (Economic reforms of Meiji Japan, Developments of factories and railroads in Tsarist Russia, Muhammad Ali's development of cotton textile industry in Egypt)

C. In a small number of states, governments promoted their own state-sponsored visions of industrialization (Economic reforms of Meiji JapanDevelopments of factories and railroads in Tsarist RussiaMuhammad Ali's development of cotton textile industry in Egypt)

D. In response to the social and economic changes brought about by industrial capitalism, some governments promoted various types of political, social, educational, and urban reforms.(State pensions and public health in Germany, Expansion of suffrage in Britain, Public Education)

D. In response to the social and economic changes brought about by industrial capitalism, some governments promoted various types of political, social, educational, and urban reforms.(State pensions and public health in GermanyExpansion of suffrage in BritainPublic Education)

VI. The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy.

A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.

A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.

B. Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization.

B. Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization.

C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community.

C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community.


As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.

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 I. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires. 

A. States with existing colonies (British in India, Dutch in Indonesia) strengthened their control over those colonies.

A. States with existing colonies (British in IndiaDutch in Indonesiastrengthened their control over those colonies.

B. European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empiresthroughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.

C. Many European states (Britain in West Africa, Belgians in the Congo) used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa

C. Many European states (Britain in West AfricaBelgians in the Congoused both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa

D. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies (The British in Southern Africa, Australia, The French in Algeria)

D. In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies (The British in Southern AfricaAustralia, The French in Algeria)

E. Industrialized states practiced Neocolonialism in Latin America and economic imperialism in some parts of the world (British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium War, The British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America)

E. Industrialized states practiced Neocolonialism in Latin America and economic imperialism in some parts of the world (British and French expanding their influence in China through the Opium WarThe British and the United States investing heavily in Latin America)

II. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.

A. The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan. (THIS IS COVERED VERY WELL IN THE IMPERIALISM Crash Course HERE) 

A. The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan. (THIS IS COVERED VERY WELL IN THE IMPERIALISM Crash Course HERE

B. The United States, Russia, and Japan expanded their land borders by conquering and settling neighboring territories. 

B. The United States, Russia, and Japan expanded their land borders by conquering and settling neighboring territories. 

C. Anti-resistance took various forms, including direct resistance within empires and the creation of new states on the peripheries.

C. Anti-resistance took various forms, including direct resistance within empires and the creation of new states on the peripheries.

III. In some imperial socieites, emergin cultural religious and racial ideologies, including Social Darwinism, were used to justify imperialism.

(Captain Cook is not mentioned in the AP Curriculum because who cares. But, the open letter here is to WHITE MAN's BURDEN from 2:45-3:30)


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The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and anti-Imperial tendencies of this period.

I. The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments

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A. Enlightenment philosophies applied new ways of understanding and empiricist approaches to both the natural world and human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life...

... they also reexamined the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation...

... they also reexamined the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation...

... other Enlightenment philosophies developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract

... other Enlightenment philosophies developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract

B. The ideas of Enlightenment philosophers, as reflected in revolutionary documents (see above) influenced resistance to existing political authority, often in pursuit of independence and democratic ideals. 

B. The ideas of Enlightenment philosophers, as reflected in revolutionary documents (see above) influenced resistance to existing political authority, often in pursuit of independence and democratic ideals. 

C. Enlightenment ideas influenced various reform movements that existing notions of social relations, which contributed to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.

C. Enlightenment ideas influenced various reform movements that existing notions of social relations, which contributed to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.

II. Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea of Nationalism to unite diverse populations. In some cases, nationalists challenged boundaries or sought unification of fragmented regions. 

III. Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.

A. Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments (Marathas vs. Mughals, Taiping vs. Qing Dynasty)

A. Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments (Marathas vs. Mughals, Taiping vs. Qing Dynasty)

B. American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions (American, Haitian, & Latin American), which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America. 

C. Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. (establishment of Maroon societies in Caribbean and North American slave resistance)

C. Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. (establishment of Maroon societies in Caribbean and North American slave resistance)

D. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements  (Indian Revolt of 1857, Boxer Rebellion)

D. Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements  (Indian Revolt of 1857, Boxer Rebellion)

E. Some of the rebellions were influenced by diverse religious ideas  (Taiping Rebellion, The Ghost Dance, The Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement)

E. Some of the rebellions were influenced by diverse religious ideas  (Taiping RebellionThe Ghost DanceThe Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement)

IV. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.

A. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalism, socialism, and communism.

A. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalismsocialism, and communism.


Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. In both cases, migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people. 

I. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demographICS in both industrialized and un-industrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.

A. Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population.

A. Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population.

B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century.  The new methods of transportation also allowed for many migrants to return periodically or permanently to their home societies. (Japanese Agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, Italians in Argentina)

B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century.  The new methods of transportation also allowed for many migrants to return periodically or permanently to their home societies. (Japanese Agricultural workers in the Pacific, Lebanese merchants in the Americas, Italians in Argentina)

II. Migrants (manual laborers, specialized professionals) relocated for a variety of reasons.

A. Many individuals (manual laborers, specialized professionals)chose freely to relocate, often in search of work

A. Many individuals (manual laborers, specialized professionals)chose freely to relocate, often in search of work

B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semi-coerced labor migration including Slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and  Convict labor.

B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semi-coerced labor migration including SlaveryChinese and Indian indentured servitude, and  Convict labor.

III. The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the nineteenth century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations.

A. Migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.

A. Migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.

B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves (Chinese in Southeast Asia, Caribbean, South America, North America (also the Washington DC Chinatown); Indians in East and Southern Africa, Irish and Italians in North America) in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.

B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves (Chinese in Southeast Asia, Caribbean, South America, North America (also the Washington DC Chinatown); Indians in East and Southern Africa, Irish and Italians in North America) in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.

C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people (Chinese Exclusion Act, White Australia Policy) across their borders.

C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people (Chinese Exclusion ActWhite Australia Policy) across their borders.


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The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.


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I know what you’re thinking… This is a painting of the French Revolution of 1789!  This is a common misconception.  This is actually used to depict the 1830 French Revolution.  Delacroix, who was already a world-famous painter famously said, “if I haven’t fought for my country at least I’ll paint for her.” If the lady in the middle looks familiar, it’s because she as the model used for the Statue of Liberty. This painting has come to symbolize the anti-monarchist revolutions of the 19th century.

I know what you’re thinking… This is a painting of the French Revolution of 1789!  This is a common misconception.  This is actually used to depict the 1830 French Revolution.  Delacroix, who was already a world-famous painter famously said, “if I haven’t fought for my country at least I’ll paint for her.” If the lady in the middle looks familiar, it’s because she as the model used for the Statue of Liberty. This painting has come to symbolize the anti-monarchist revolutions of the 19th century.

It took me years to realize that this is actually a painting of Mt. Fuji.  I always just focused on the huge wave and the boats that were being tossed around.  This is easily the most famous piece of Japanese art.  It was created as a drawing and then, using that drawing, wood-blocks were created to print the image. The Great Wave is actually one of 36 wood block prints by Hokusai of Mt. Fuji.  Mt. Fuji is the focal point of much of Japanese art. 

It took me years to realize that this is actually a painting of Mt. Fuji.  I always just focused on the huge wave and the boats that were being tossed around.  This is easily the most famous piece of Japanese art.  It was created as a drawing and then, using that drawing, wood-blocks were created to print the image. The Great Wave is actually one of 36 wood block prints by Hokusai of Mt. Fuji.  Mt. Fuji is the focal point of much of Japanese art. 

Next year, you're going to hear a lot more about American History.  But, Manifest Destiny is brought up in AP World History in this era.  This painting was commissioned by a publisher of Western Travel Guides. I was shocked to find out that this painting, like the Mona Lisa, is actually pretty small.  It's only 12"x 16". It's pretty literal.  People are heading west.  Notice how the Native Americans precede the settlers.  Also, you can see they are followed by the railroads.  

Next year, you're going to hear a lot more about American History.  But, Manifest Destiny is brought up in AP World History in this era.  This painting was commissioned by a publisher of Western Travel Guides. I was shocked to find out that this painting, like the Mona Lisa, is actually pretty small.  It's only 12"x 16". It's pretty literal.  People are heading west.  Notice how the Native Americans precede the settlers.  Also, you can see they are followed by the railroads.  

Van Gogh’s most famous painting was the view from his window in June of 1889.  Which window? The window of the insane asylum that he checked himself into after cutting off his ear.  Yeah… THAT window.  He stayed in the Asylum for a year and produced some of his most famous work there.  Van Gogh himself later stated that he painted the stars too large (everyone’s a critic).  My favorite part? Using the astronomical records, the largest star in the painting Starry Night is actually Venus… a planet.

Van Gogh’s most famous painting was the view from his window in June of 1889.  Which window? The window of the insane asylum that he checked himself into after cutting off his ear.  Yeah… THAT window.  He stayed in the Asylum for a year and produced some of his most famous work there.  Van Gogh himself later stated that he painted the stars too large (everyone’s a critic).  My favorite part? Using the astronomical records, the largest star in the painting Starry Night is actually Venus… a planet.

This photo was taken in New York City by Jacob Riis. This was one of many photos Riis used for his work, How the Other Half Lives.  The book highlighted the immigrants living in tenement housing in the 1880s.  Photos like this were used to show the upper classes what life was like for the poor in New York City.  The title "Street Arabs" refers to the nomadic nature of these children. Initially banned due to their graphic nature, Riis' book helped lead to reforms in the tenement housing/sweashops of New York City.

This photo was taken in New York City by Jacob Riis. This was one of many photos Riis used for his work, How the Other Half Lives.  The book highlighted the immigrants living in tenement housing in the 1880s.  Photos like this were used to show the upper classes what life was like for the poor in New York City.  The title "Street Arabs" refers to the nomadic nature of these children. Initially banned due to their graphic nature, Riis' book helped lead to reforms in the tenement housing/sweashops of New York City.

  1. DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, 1776, Thomas Jefferson (USA)
  2. WEALTH of NATIONS, 1776, Adam Smith (SCOTLAND)
  3. DECLARATION of the RIGHTS of MAN , 1789, National Assembly (FRANCE)
  4. JAMAICA LETTER, 1815, Simon Bolivar (JAMAICA)
  5. COMMUNIST MANIFESTO, 1848, Karl Marx (GERMANY)


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  1. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CHANGED THE WAY THAT EVERYTHING IS MADE AND WOULD LEAD EUROPE TO DOMINATE THE WORLD.

  2. USING THEIR NEW INDUSTRIAL POWERS, EUROPE WENT OUT AND CONQUERED EVERYWHERE THEY HAD NOT GOTTEN TO IN THE LAST ERA (CENTRAL AFRICA, ASIA, AUSTRALIA).

  3. EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS SPREAD AND LED TO REVOLUTIONS IN THE NEW WORLD (AND IN EUROPE).

  4. TRADITIONAL WORLD POWERS FROM THE LAST ERA WEAKENED (SPAIN, OTTOMANS, MUGHALS, QING CHINA) WHILE NEW WORLD POWERS ROSE ( USA, GERMANY, JAPAN).

  5. HUGE EMPIRES + BOOMING INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES= GLOBAL MIGRATIONS (People moving for work)