The previous era was dominated by European discovery.  This era is dominated by how these Europeans handled their new-found success both ECONOMICALLY (Industrial Revolution) & POLITICALLY (Revolutions)**.  Much like the Mongols and Muslims of the Post Classical, this era is essentially the Industrial Revolution & the Enlightenment-driven Revolutions (French, US, Latin America, etc.).  One could argue that the Industrial Revolution is the most important thing that ever happened.  Besides the Columbian Exchange, its the only other thing I can guarantee that will be on the AP test.  This is also the only era with 4 subsections: Industrial Revolution, Imperialism, Revolution, and Migration. This is the Modern Era...

(**WARNING: DO NOT GET TOO EURO HERE.  LOOKING THROUGH THE CURRICULUM BELOW, IT SEEMS THAT THE FOCUS OF THIS ERA IS EUROPE/WEST.  EUROPE's DOMINATION WAS ONLY ASSURED BY THE END OF THE PERIOD, 1900.  IN 1750, CHINA IS THE WORLD's BIGGEST MANUFACTURER. CHINA WILL REMAIN THE LARGEST MANUFACTURER UNTIL THE 1830s AND WASN't SURPASSED BY THE US UNTIL THE 1880s. SO, DON'T SKIP PAST CHINA, JAPAN, the OTTOMANS, LATIN AMERICA, and AFRICA!!!!)

The above map was created using the geographic references from this era in the AP World History curriculum. Every geographic reference for this unit appears on this map.

KEY CONCEPT 5.1: INDUSTRIALIZATION & GLOBAL CAPITALISM
Industrialization fundamentally altered the production of goods around the world. It not only changed how goods were produced and consumed, as well as what was considered a “good,” but it also had far-reaching effects on the global economy, social relations, and culture. Although it is common to speak of an “Industrial Revolution,” the process of industrialization was a gradual one that unfolded over the course of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, eventually becoming global.
 

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1. Industrialization fundamentally changed how goods were produced

The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.

The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. The “fossil fuels” revolution greatly increased the energy available to human societies.

Watt's Steam Engine

Watt's Steam Engine

Internal Combustion Engine

Internal Combustion Engine

The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.

The development of the factory system concentrated labor in a single location and led to an increasing degree of specialization of labor.

As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.

As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia, and Japan.

The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.

The “second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century.

2. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories.

The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources (Cotton, Rubber, Palm oil, Sugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals & minerals). The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.

The need for raw materials for the factories and increased food supplies for the growing population in urban centers led to the growth of export economies around the world that specialized in mass producing single natural resources (CottonRubberPalm oilSugar, wheat, meat, guano, metals & minerals)The profits from these raw materials were used to purchase finished goods.

The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies (Textile industry in India)

The rapid development of industrial production contributed to the decline of economically productive, agriculturally based economies (Textile industry in India)

The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets (British and French attempts to "open up" Chinese markets during the nineteenth century) for their finished goods.

The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets (British and French attempts to "open up" Chinese markets during the nineteenth century) for their finished goods.

The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers (Copper in Mexico, Gold and diamonds in South Africa)

The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth, led to the development of extensive mining centers (Copper in MexicoGold and diamonds in South Africa)

3. To facilitate investments at all levels of industrial production, financiers developed and expanded various financial institutions.

The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.

The ideological inspiration for economic changes lies in the development of capitalism and classical liberalism associated with Adam Smith and John Stuart Mill.

Financial instruments (Stock markets, insurance, Gold standard, Limited liability corporations) expanded.

Financial instruments (Stock markets, insurance, Gold standardLimited liability corporationsexpanded.

The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses (United Fruit Company, The HSBC- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

The global nature of trade and production contributed to the proliferation of large-scale transnational businesses (United Fruit CompanyThe HSBC- Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

4. There were major developments in transportation and communication Required examples of developments in transportation and communication

5. The development and spread of global capitalism led to a variety of responses.

In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions (Utopian socialism, Marxism, Anarchism) of society

In industrialized states, many workers organized themselves to improve working conditions, limit hours, and gain higher wages, while others opposed capitalist exploitation of workers by promoting alternative visions (Utopian socialismMarxismAnarchism) of society

  • In Qing China and the Ottoman Empire, some members of the government resisted economic change and attempted to maintain preindustrial forms of economic production.
In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments mitigated the negative effects of industrial capitalism by promoting various types of reforms (State pensions and public health in Germany, Expansion of suffrage in Britain, Public Education)

In response to criticisms of industrial global capitalism, some governments mitigated the negative effects of industrial capitalism by promoting various types of reforms (State pensions and public health in GermanyExpansion of suffrage in BritainPublic Education)

6. The ways in which people organized themselves into societies also underwent significant transformations in industrialized states due to the fundamental restructuring of the global economy.

New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.

New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed.

Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization.

Family dynamics, gender roles, and demographics changed in response to industrialization.

Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community.

Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community.

KEY CONCEPT 5.2: IMPERIALISM & NATION-STATE FORMATION
As states industrialized during this period, they also expanded their existing overseas colonies and established new types of colonies and transoceanic empires. Regional warfare and diplomacy both resulted in and were affected by this process of modern empire building. The process was led mostly by Europe, although not all states were affected equally, which led to an increase of European influence around the world. The United States and Japan also participated in this process. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class, and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities.

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 1. Industrializing powers established transoceanic empires. (2013 DBQ ESSAY)

States with existing colonies (British in India, Dutch in Indonesia) strengthened their control over those colonies.

States with existing colonies (British in IndiaDutch in Indonesiastrengthened their control over those colonies.

  • European states, as well as the Americans and the Japanese, established empires (BritishDutchFrenchGermanRussianthroughout Asia and the Pacific, while Spanish and Portuguese influence declined.
Many European states (Britain in West Africa, Belgians in the Congo) used both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa

Many European states (Britain in West AfricaBelgians in the Congoused both warfare and diplomacy to establish empires in Africa

In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies (The British in Southern Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, The French in Algeria)

In some parts of their empires, Europeans established settler colonies (The British in Southern AfricaAustralia, and New Zealand, The French in Algeria)

2. Imperialism influenced state formation and contraction around the world.

The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan. (THIS IS COVERED VERY WELL IN THE IMPERIALISM Crash Course HERE) (2013 COMPARE CONTRAST ESSAY)

The expansion of U.S. and European influence over Tokugawa Japan led to the emergence of Meiji Japan. (THIS IS COVERED VERY WELL IN THE IMPERIALISM Crash Course HERE) (2013 COMPARE CONTRAST ESSAY)

The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories.

The United States and Russia emulated European transoceanic imperialism by expanding their land borders and conquering neighboring territories.

New states developed on the edges of existing empires (Cherokee nation, Siam, Hawaii, Zulu Kingdom) CLICK HERE

The development and spread of nationalism (German nation, Filipino nationalism, Liberian nationalism), as an ideology fostered new communal identities

The development and spread of nationalism (German nationFilipino nationalismLiberian nationalism), as an ideology fostered new communal identities

3. New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and justified imperialism.

(Captain Cook is not mentioned in the AP Curriculum because who cares. But, the open letter here is to WHITE MAN's BURDEN from 2:45-3:30)

KEY CONCEPT 5.3: NATIONALISM, REVOLUTION, and REFORM
The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments, and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. Enlightenment thought and the resistance of colonized peoples to imperial centers shaped this revolutionary activity. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. These new ideas in turn further stimulated the revolutionary and anti-Imperial tendencies of this period.

1. The rise and diffusion of Enlightenment thought that questioned established traditions in all areas of life often preceded the revolutions and rebellions against existing governments

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Thinkers (Voltaire, Rousseau) applied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life.

Thinkers (VoltaireRousseauapplied new ways of understanding the natural world to human relationships, encouraging observation and inference in all spheres of life.

Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation.

Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation.

Enlightenment thinkers (Locke, Montesquieu) developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract

Enlightenment thinkers (LockeMontesquieudeveloped new political ideas about the individual, natural rights, and the social contract

The ideas of Enlightenment thinkers influenced resistance to existing political authority, as reflected in revolutionary documents

Required examples of revolutionary documents

The American Declaration of Independence

The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

Bolivar’s Jamaica Letter

These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.

These ideas influenced many people to challenge existing notions of social relations, which led to the expansion of rights as seen in expanded suffrage, the abolition of slavery and the end of serfdom, as their ideas were implemented.

2. Beginning in the eighteenth century, peoples around the world developed a new sense of commonality based on language, religion, social customs and territory. These newly imagined national communities linked this identity with the borders of the state, while governments used this idea to unite diverse populations.

3. Increasing discontent with imperial rule propelled reformist and revolutionary movements.

Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments

Subjects challenged the centralized imperial governments

  • American colonial subjects led a series of rebellions, which facilitated the emergence of independent states in the United States, Haiti, and mainland Latin America. French subjects rebelled against their monarchy. Required examples of rebellions
Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. (establishment of Maroon societies)

Slave resistance challenged existing authorities in the Americas. (establishment of Maroon societies)

Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements 

Increasing questions about political authority and growing nationalism contributed to anticolonial movements 

Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism (Taiping Rebellion, The Ghost Dance, The Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement)

Some of the rebellions were influenced by religious ideas and millenarianism (Taiping Rebellion, The Ghost Dance, The Xhosa Cattle Killing Movement)

Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms (Tanzimat Reforms, Self Strengthening Movement) in imperial policies

Responses to increasingly frequent rebellions led to reforms (Tanzimat Reforms, Self Strengthening Movement) in imperial policies

4. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities.

Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalism, socialism, and communism.

Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the development of political ideologies, including liberalismsocialism, and communism.

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KEY CONCEPT 5.4:  GLOBAL MIGRATION 

Migration patterns changed dramatically throughout this period, and the numbers of migrants increased significantly. These changes were closely connected to the development of transoceanic empires and a global capitalist economy. In some cases, people benefited economically from migration, while other people were seen simply as commodities to be transported. In both cases, migration produced dramatically different societies for both sending and receiving societies, and presented challenges to governments in fostering national identities and regulating the flow of people. (2011 CCOT TOPIC)

1. Migration in many cases was influenced by changes in demography in both industrialized and un-industrialized societies that presented challenges to existing patterns of living.

Changes in food production and improved medical conditions contributed to a significant global rise in population.

Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century.

Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. This pattern contributed to the significant global urbanization of the nineteenth century.

2. Migrants (manual laborers, specialized professionals) relocated for a variety of reasons.

Many individuals chose freely to relocate, often in search of work

Many individuals chose freely to relocate, often in search of work

The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration Required examples of coerced and semicoerced labor migration 1. Slavery 2. Chinese and Indian indentured servitude 3. Convict labor

The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration Required examples of coerced and semicoerced labor migration

1. Slavery

2. Chinese and Indian indentured servitude

3. Convict labor

3. The large-scale nature of migration, especially in the nineteenth century, produced a variety of consequences and reactions to the increasingly diverse societies on the part of migrants and the existing populations.

Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.

Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home society that had been formerly occupied by men.

Migrants often created ethnic enclaves (Chinese in Southeast Asia, Caribbean, South America, North America (also the Washington DC Chinatown); Indians in East and Southern Africa, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia) in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.

Migrants often created ethnic enclaves (Chinese in Southeast Asia, Caribbean, South America, North America (also the Washington DC Chinatown); Indians in East and Southern Africathe Caribbean, and Southeast Asia) in different parts of the world which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.

Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people (Chinese Exclusion Act, White Australia Policy) across their borders.

Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in the various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states attempted to regulate the increased flow of people (Chinese Exclusion ActWhite Australia Policy) across their borders.

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The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

The information that follows is not specifically mentioned by the College Board.  However, it will make you a more culturally well-rounded person; so... you're welcome.

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I know what you’re thinking… This is a painting of the French Revolution of 1789!  This is a common misconception.  This is actually used to depict the 1830 French Revolution.  Delacroix, who was already a world-famous painter famously said, “if I haven’t fought for my country at least I’ll paint for her.” If the lady in the middle looks familiar, it’s because she as the model used for the Statue of Liberty. This painting has come to symbolize the anti-monarchist revolutions of the 19th century.

I know what you’re thinking… This is a painting of the French Revolution of 1789!  This is a common misconception.  This is actually used to depict the 1830 French Revolution.  Delacroix, who was already a world-famous painter famously said, “if I haven’t fought for my country at least I’ll paint for her.” If the lady in the middle looks familiar, it’s because she as the model used for the Statue of Liberty. This painting has come to symbolize the anti-monarchist revolutions of the 19th century.

It took me years to realize that this is actually a painting of Mt. Fuji.  I always just focused on the huge wave and the boats that were being tossed around.  This is easily the most famous piece of Japanese art.  It was created as a drawing and then, using that drawing, wood-blocks were created to print the image. The Great Wave is actually one of 36 wood block prints by Hokusai of Mt. Fuji.  Mt. Fuji is the focal point of much of Japanese art. 

It took me years to realize that this is actually a painting of Mt. Fuji.  I always just focused on the huge wave and the boats that were being tossed around.  This is easily the most famous piece of Japanese art.  It was created as a drawing and then, using that drawing, wood-blocks were created to print the image. The Great Wave is actually one of 36 wood block prints by Hokusai of Mt. Fuji.  Mt. Fuji is the focal point of much of Japanese art. 

Next year, you're going to hear a lot more about American History.  But, Manifest Destiny is brought up in AP World History in this era.  This painting was commissioned by a publisher of Western Travel Guides. I was shocked to find out that this painting, like the Mona Lisa, is actually pretty small.  It's only 12"x 16". It's pretty literal.  People are heading west.  Notice how the Native Americans precede the settlers.  Also, you can see they are followed by the railroads.  

Next year, you're going to hear a lot more about American History.  But, Manifest Destiny is brought up in AP World History in this era.  This painting was commissioned by a publisher of Western Travel Guides. I was shocked to find out that this painting, like the Mona Lisa, is actually pretty small.  It's only 12"x 16". It's pretty literal.  People are heading west.  Notice how the Native Americans precede the settlers.  Also, you can see they are followed by the railroads.  

Van Gogh’s most famous painting was the view from his window in June of 1889.  Which window? The window of the insane asylum that he checked himself into after cutting off his ear.  Yeah… THAT window.  He stayed in the Asylum for a year and produced some of his most famous work there.  Van Gogh himself later stated that he painted the stars too large (everyone’s a critic).  My favorite part? Using the astronomical records, the largest star in the painting Starry Night is actually Venus… a planet.

Van Gogh’s most famous painting was the view from his window in June of 1889.  Which window? The window of the insane asylum that he checked himself into after cutting off his ear.  Yeah… THAT window.  He stayed in the Asylum for a year and produced some of his most famous work there.  Van Gogh himself later stated that he painted the stars too large (everyone’s a critic).  My favorite part? Using the astronomical records, the largest star in the painting Starry Night is actually Venus… a planet.

This photo was taken in New York City by Jacob Riis. This was one of many photos Riis used for his work, How the Other Half Lives.  The book highlighted the immigrants living in tenement housing in the 1880s.  Photos like this were used to show the upper classes what life was like for the poor in New York City.  The title "Street Arabs" refers to the nomadic nature of these children. Initially banned due to their graphic nature, Riis' book helped lead to reforms in the tenement housing/sweashops of New York City.

This photo was taken in New York City by Jacob Riis. This was one of many photos Riis used for his work, How the Other Half Lives.  The book highlighted the immigrants living in tenement housing in the 1880s.  Photos like this were used to show the upper classes what life was like for the poor in New York City.  The title "Street Arabs" refers to the nomadic nature of these children. Initially banned due to their graphic nature, Riis' book helped lead to reforms in the tenement housing/sweashops of New York City.

  1. DECLARATION of INDEPENDENCE, 1776, Thomas Jefferson (USA)
  2. WEALTH of NATIONS, 1776, Adam Smith (SCOTLAND)
  3. DECLARATION of the RIGHTS of MAN , 1789, National Assembly (FRANCE)
  4. JAMAICA LETTER, 1815, Simon Bolivar (JAMAICA)
  5. COMMUNIST MANIFESTO, 1848, Karl Marx (GERMANY)
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  1. THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION CHANGED THE WAY THAT EVERYTHING IS MADE AND WOULD LEAD EUROPE TO DOMINATE THE WORLD.

  2. USING THEIR NEW INDUSTRIAL POWERS, EUROPE WENT OUT AND CONQUERED EVERYWHERE THEY HAD NOT GOTTEN TO IN THE LAST ERA (CENTRAL AFRICA, ASIA, AUSTRALIA).

  3. EUROPEAN ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS SPREAD AND LED TO REVOLUTIONS IN THE NEW WORLD (AND IN EUROPE).

  4. TRADITIONAL WORLD POWERS FROM THE LAST ERA WEAKENED (SPAIN, OTTOMANS, MUGHALS, QING CHINA) WHILE NEW WORLD POWERS ROSE ( USA, GERMANY, JAPAN).

  5. HUGE EMPIRES + BOOMING INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES= GLOBAL MIGRATIONS (People moving for work)